+ Cyber Security Interview Questions And Answers
Cyber security has been a consistently growing field in the tech space as cyber-attacks become more sophisticated and frequent. Cyber security professionals help organizations protect their company data and systems, including hardware and software.
Interested in a budding career as an information security analyst, or maybe even a cyber security director? Weve rounded up the top cyber security interview questions youre most likely to hear in 2022, including for beginner, intermediate, and advanced professionals.
What Is The Cia Security Triad
The CIA triad contains three components, regardless of the source. A Network Security engineer should have a profound understanding of what these components mean.
a. Confidentiality refers to an organization’s ability to keep its data confidential. This usually means that data should only be accessed or modified by authorized individuals and processes.
b. Integrity refers to the ability to trust data. It should be preserved in a proper state, protected from tampering, and accurate, authentic, and dependable.
c. Availability: Information should be available to authorized users whenever they need it, just as it is critical to keep unauthorized users out of an organization’s data. This entails maintaining the availability of systems, networks, and devices.
All of these ideas are relevant to security experts of all types on their own. Information security experts may think about the link between these three notions, how they intersect, and how they contradict one another by grouping them into a triangle.
You should establish their infosec objectives and processes by examining the relationship between the three legs of the triad.
Top 10 Network Security Interview Questions
When seeking cybersecurity solutions, companies find a tailored fit whose ethos matches theirs. Since trust is the cornerstone of cybersecurity systems, business enterprises are not ready to compromise on their prerequisite of finding a close fit for the role. Therefore, breaking into the cybersecurity industry is getting more challenging for newbies. It is also one of the reasons why cybersecurity professionals are preparing for interviews beforehand.
Aspiring cybersecurity professionals invest time in brushing up on core concepts so that they are able to answer something as basic as how do you define cybersecurity, what is network security, and as complex as what are cybersecurity threats, their consequences and the solutions. Reading previous cybersecurity and network security interview questions can be helpful here.
In this article, we will take you through why preparing for a network security interview is imperative in the current employment milieu and more. But, before that, lets understand what network security is and how it is an important part of a cybersecurity system.
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What Are The Objectives Of Cyber Security Training Courses Online
Who Should Go For This Cybersecurity Training Certification
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Top Network Security Interview Questions And Answers For 2022
You have just graduated with the necessary network security certifications. And now you are hunting for a job in the network security domain of the IT sector. Certainly, the skills you learned during your training will prove to be an essential factor. But cracking the interview is not only about subject knowledge.
Besides your technical proficiency, the interviewers will test your problem-solving abilities by asking scenario-based questions. It would be beneficial to familiarize yourself with some common questions asked during a network security interview. Additionally, it would demonstrate that you are a deserving candidate with extensive knowledge of the field.
However, you may not face all of the listed questions during the interview. Nonetheless, network security professionals usually ask the following questionsin an interview.
What Is An Xss Attack And How Can You Prevent It
The full form of XSS attack is a Cross-Site Scripting attack. It is a cyberattack that makes hackers able to inject malicious client-side scripts into web pages. The XSS attacks are mainly used to hijack sessions, steal cookies, modify DOM, remote code execution, crash the server, etc.
We can use the following practices to prevent XSS attacks:
What Do You Understand By Black Hat Hackers White Hat Hackers And Grey Hat Hackers
Black Hat Hackers: Black Hat Hackers are the most critical types of hackers. They attempt to obtain unauthorized access to a system to disrupt its operations or steal sensitive and important data. Black Hat Hackers are also known as crackers.
Black Hat Hacking is always illegal due to its malicious aim. The main purpose of Black Hat Hacking is to steal company data, violate privacy, cause system damage, block network connections, etc.
White Hat Hackers: White Hat Hackers are used to accessing the system for penetration testing and vulnerability assessments. They never intend to harm the system rather, than strive to uncover holes in a computer or network system. White Hat Hackers are also referred to as Ethical Hackers.
Hacking done by White Hat Hackers is called Ethical hacking. It is not a crime, and it is considered one of the most difficult professions in the IT business. Many businesses hire ethical hackers to do penetration tests and vulnerability assessments.
Grey Hat Hackers: Grey Hat Hackers are a combination of Black Hat Hackers and White Hat Hackers. They use elements of both black and white hat hacking techniques. They are supposed to act without malice, but for the sake of amusement, they can exploit the security flaw in a computer system or network without the permission or knowledge of the owner.
The main goal of Grey Hat Hackers is to draw the owners’ attention to the security flaw or hole in the network in the hope of receiving gratitude or a reward.
Mention The Steps To Set Up A Firewall
Following are the steps you have to follow to set up a firewall:
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Below Is A List Of Passwords Pulled Out A Database
A. @#$)*& ^%
Which of the following passwords meets UCSCs password requirements?
Answer is UcSc4Evr!
This is the only choice that meets all of the following UCSC requirements:
At least 8 characters in length
Contains at least 3 of the following 4 types of characters: lower case letters, upper case letters, numbers, special characters
Not a word preceded or followed by a digit
What Defence Will You Use Against The Following Attacks: Brute Force Attack And Man
Brute force attacks happen when a hacker or unauthorised personnel take infinite attempts to crack a password.
Here are 5 possible ways to defend against this attack:
- Account lockout: When multiple incorrect passwords are entered into an account, it is locked or temporarily suspended and can only be opened by an administrator.
- Progressive delay defence: An offending account is locked for X number of days after someone makes Y unsuccessful login attempts.
- Challenge-response authentication: After a few unsuccessful password attempts, a question is asked whose answer will be known to only an authorised user.
- Captcha: It is used to make an attack by automated bots ineffective.
- Two Factor Authentication : Because password alone is not sufficient to prevent attacks, the second level of authentication is brought in. For example, a security code is sent to your mobile or email.
A Man in the Middle attack takes place when an eavesdropper monitors and controls a conversation between two links in a network. The users at the receiving end are completely unaware of the situation.
You can prevent man-in-the-middle attack through following ways:
- Stay away from public networks and open Wi-Fi networks
- Secure your emails by employing TLS/SSL on the server
- Use VPN to create a secure connection from your organisation
- Keep the browsers updated with the latest security features
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Stored And Reflected Xss Attacks Difference
Stored XSS Attacks – These are attacks in which the injected scripts are persistently stored on the target servers. So when the victim requests information from the server, the malicious script is executed.
Reflected XSS Attacks – In this attack, the attacker tricks the user by any means to visit a link to a vulnerable website allowing the attacker to gain the users data.
What Are Salted Hashes
When two users have the same password, it will result in the creation of the same password hashes. In such a case, an attacker can easily crack the password by performing a dictionary or brute-force attack. To avoid this, a salted hash is implemented.
A salted hash is used to randomize hashes by prepending or appending a random string to the password before hashing. This results in the creation of two completely different hashes, which can be employed to protect the users passwords in the database against the attacker.
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Cyber Security Interview Questions For Experienced
21. What is Salting?
Ans: Salting involves the addition of extra values to expand the password length and alter its hash value. It is responsible for protecting the password. It adds complexity to the password and prevents hackers from guessing simple passwords easily.
22. Differentiate stream cipher and block cipher.
Ans: Steam cipher is a method of encryption in which plain digits are combined with the pseudo-random stream to generate ciphertext one bit at a time. It is used for hardware implementation and is used within the Secure Sockets Layer.
A Block cipher is a method of encryption where a cryptographic key and algorithm are implemented to a block of data, like a group, in order to generate the ciphertext. It is used to encrypt files and databases.
23. Explain ARP.
Ans: ARP refers to the Address Resolution Protocol. It is a protocol used to map an IP address to a recognized physical machine address on the LAN. When the incoming packet sent to a host machine on a given local network reaches a gateway, the gateway instructs the ARP program to locate a MAC address or a physical host which matches the IP address. The ARP program searches the ARP cache and, if the address is found, gives it so that the packet will be converted to the appropriate format and length and sent to the machine. If no IP address input is found, ARP will release a special format request packet to every machine on the LAN to identify whether a machine knows it has that associated IP address.
Network Security Engineer Interview Questions And Answers
Learn what skills and qualities interviewers are looking for from a network security engineer, what questions you can expect, and how you should go about answering them.
As the world becomes increasingly digitized, the need for qualified network security engineers continues to grow. These professionals are responsible for designing and implementing security measures to protect computer networks from unauthorized access, theft, or damage.
If youre looking to enter this in-demand field, youll need to be prepared to answer a range of questions related to your experience and expertise during a job interview. In this guide, well provide you with sample questions and answers that will help you stand out and land the job you want.
Are you familiar with the different types of firewalls and their uses?
Firewalls are a common security measure used by network engineers. The interviewer may ask you this question to see if you have experience using firewalls in your previous roles and to determine what types of firewalls youre familiar with. In your answer, try to explain the different types of firewalls and how they work.
What are the different types of VPNs and when they are used?
How would you go about securing a wireless network?
What is the difference between a proxy server and a firewall?
Provide an example of a time when you had to troubleshoot a network issue.
If you were given a budget to purchase network security equipment, what would you purchase?
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One Of The Staff Members In Xyz Subscribes To Many Free Magazines Now To Activate Her Subscriptions One Of The Magazines Asked For Her Month Of Birth Second Asked For Her Year Of Birth The Other One Asked For Her Maiden Name
What do you infer from this situation? Justify.
All three newsletters probably have the same parent company or are distributed through the same service. The parent company or service can combine individual pieces of seemingly-harmless information and use or sell it for identity theft
It is even possible that there is a fourth newsletter that asks for a day of birth as one of the activation questions
Often questions about personal information are optional. In addition to being suspicious about situations like the one described here, never provide personal information when it is not legitimately necessary, or to people or companies, you dont personally know.
What Is Network Segmentation
A subnet can be created by dividing a network into multiple segments or subnets, each of which acts as a separate little network. Controlled traffic flow between subnets is possible by using this architectural technique. In addition to improving monitoring, boosting performance, localizing technology problems, and most importantly, enhancing security, segmentation is employed by businesses.
Network security personnel have an effective tool in preventing important assets, such as customers personal information, corporate financial records and important intellectual property, from being exploited by malicious outsiders or curious insiders by means of network segmentation. These assets are frequently located in hybrid and multi-cloud environments, which have to be protected against hacking attempts. To know the security impact of segmentation, it is crucial to comprehend the nature of trust among network security.
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What Time Management Strategies Would You Use To Balance The Many Aspects Of Network Security
Managing network security involves a range of passive and active responsibilities so potential employers may ask about your time management, multitasking and organizational abilities. In your answer, explain how you prioritize tasks, respond to emergencies and check your work during a typical network security project.
Example: “I would sort my tasks by severity, with active network problems taking the highest priority. I predict how much time each network security ticket might take, then schedule maintenance, patches and updates during downtime.”
What Do You Understand By Brute Force Attack How Can You Prevent It
Brute Force Attack is a method of finding the right credentials by repetitively trying all the permutations and combinations of possible credentials. Brute Force Attacks are automated in most cases where the tool/software automatically tries to log in with a list of possible credentials.
Following is a list of some ways to prevent Brute Force Attacks:
- Password Length: The length of a password is an important aspect to make it hard to crack. You can specify to set at least a minimum length for the password. The lengthier the password, the harder it is to find.
- Password Complexity: You can include different characters formats in the password to make brute force attacks harder. Using the combination of alpha-numeric keywords along with special characters and upper and lower case characters can increase the password complexity making it difficult to be cracked.
- Limiting Login Attempts: You can make the password hard for brute force attacks by setting a limit on login failures. For example, you can set the limit on login failures as 5. So, when there are five consecutive login failures, the system will restrict the user from logging in for some time or send an Email or OTP to log in the next time. Because brute force is an automated process, limiting login attempts will break the brute force process.
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Explain How You Will Set Up The Firewall
This also tests your technical skills. Give the steps you will follow when setting up a firewall.
You first do the firewall password. You then disable features for remote administration. Configure the appropriate port forwarding to enable certain applications to work. Install the firewall in the network that will cause conflict unless the firewall is disabled. Troubleshoot the issues that may arise with the firewall. You then enable logging and ensure you understand how to view the logs. Ensure the policies in place are solid and the firewall is well configured to enforce the policies. This is the process of setting up the firewall.
What Is The Need For Dns Monitoring
- DNS is a service that is used for converting user-friendly domain names into a computer-friendly IP address. It allows websites under a particular domain name that is easy to remember.
- DNS monitoring is nothing but monitoring DNS records to ensure does it route traffic properly to your website, electronic communication, services, and more.
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