Monday, January 23, 2023

Guru99 Manual Testing Interview Questions

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Q27 What Is Test Closure

What is Manual Testing ?

Test Closure is a document which gives a summary of all the tests conducted during the software development life cycle and also gives a detailed analysis of the bugs removed and errors found. This memo contains the aggregate no. of experiments, total no. of experiments executed, total no. of imperfections discovered, add total no. of imperfections settled, total no. of bugs not settled, total no of bugs rejected and so forth.

What Is Quality Control And How Does It Differ From Quality Assurance

Quality control is the process of running a program to determine if it has any defects, as well as making sure that the software meets all of the requirements put forth by the stakeholders. Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach that focuses on making sure that the methods, techniques, and processes used to create quality deliverables are applied correctly.

Importance Of Api Testing

API Testing is an important task that the testers must emphasize. It provides various advantages over other types of testing. The following are the advantages of API testing:

  • GUI Independent: We can perform API testing for checking the essential functionality of an application to reveal tiny errors and to determine a products strength. Moreover, we can test the APIs without the graphical user interface.
  • Language Independent: Through JSON or XML, we can interchange the data, therefore we can use any language for automation, irrespective of the languages utilized for building the application.
  • Reduce Testing Cost: Through API Testing we can detect small bugs before GUI testing. Generally, these small bugs will grow bigger in the GUI testing. Therefore detecting those bugs while doing the API testing will be cost-efficient.
  • Improved Test Coverage: Almost every API has features that enable the tester for creating automated tests with great test coverage including negative and positive cases. We can hardly discover the test cases that we cannot automate.
  • Enables faster releases: The test cases that take approximately 8to10hours while running the UI regression testing but, they will take only 1to2hours while doing API testing.
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    What Is A Critical Bug

    A Critical bug means a large piece of functionality or significant system component is broken, and there is no workaround left to move further.

    For example, we cannot test the other modules due to a bug in one module that has blocked the Testing of the other modules. Bugs that affect the customers business are considered critical.

    On The Basis Of Which Factors You Would Consider Choosing Automated Testing Over Manual Testing

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    Choosing automation testing over manual testing depends on the following factors:

  • Tests require periodic execution.
  • Tests execute in a standard runtime environment.
  • Automation is expected to take less time.
  • Automation is increasing reusability.
  • Automation reports are available for every execution.
  • Small releases like service packs include a minor bug fix. In such cases, executing the regression test is sufficient for validation.
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    Q30 What Is The Pesticide Paradox How To Overcome It

    According to pesticide paradox, if the same tests are repeated over and over again, eventually the same test cases will no longer find new bugs. Developers will be extra careful in those places where testers found more defects and might not look into other areas. Methods to prevent pesticide paradox:

    • To write a whole new set of test cases to exercise different parts of the software.
    • To prepare new test cases and add them to the existing test cases.

    Using these methods, its possible to find more defects in the area where defect numbers dropped.

    In case you are facing any challenges with these Manual Testing interview questions, please comment on your problems in the section below.

    What Are The Two Major Approaches To Test Automation

    There are two approaches to testing automation:

    Image-based approach This technique is based on processing the characteristics of images in Auto .

    It is easy to automate and can accurately test applications and rendering of GUIs.

    Object-based approach: It is a fast and accurate way to identify lists, buttons, and other objects in an application.

    This technique is much faster than an image-based approach and is compatible with many languages.

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    What Are The Biggest Challenges Of Software Testing

    Some hiring managers inquire about challenges to assess how you solve problems. Discuss some major challenges with the process and explain how you overcome them.

    Example:Some of the primary challenges are deciding which tests to perform and determining when to stop. I base my recommendations on the project timeline and budget as well as the requirements of the client and the application.

    Related:

    Here are some additional questions you may see for senior-level manual testing positions:

    What Is The Difference Between Performance Testing And Monkey Testing

    Top 5 Software Testing Interview Questions

    Performance testing checks the speed, scalability, and/or stability characteristics of a system. Performance is identified with achieving response time, throughput, and resource-utilization levels that meet the performance objectives for a project or a product.

    Monkey testing is a technique in software testing where the user tests the application by providing random inputs, checking the behavior of the application .

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    What Do You Mean By Sanity Testing

    Sanity testing is performed after the build to check the new functionality/defects that need to be fixed in the sanity testing. Its main goal is to check the complete functionality, which helps you to decide whether the bug is fixed and tests the effect of the fixed bug on the application under Test.

    Mention What Are The Challenges Faced During Sap Testing

    During SAP Testing, the challenges faced are:

    • Valid combination of test data required for testing
    • All the critical interfaces should be determined, and their connectivity should be established with corresponding test systems
    • To recognize the business processes which are suitable for test automation
    • Identify negative testing conditions
    • Mention how does the system design trace back to all captured requirements and the number of test cases
    • Identify Regression scenarios/test cases and build Regression test suite that requires during each release
    • Managing output and input data to complete the scenarios OTC, P2P, etc.
    • Design robust Automation Framework that should be maintainable and scalable

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    Explain Equivalence Class Partitioning

    Equivalence class partitioning is a black-box testing technique based on specifications. A set of input data that defines multiple test conditions is partitioned into logically comparable groups in equivalence class partitioning, so that utilising even a single test data from the group for testing can be considered as similar to using all the other data in that group.

    How To Do Manual Testing

    Manual testing objective interview questions and answers

    Follow these steps to do manual testing:

    Step1: First, review all the documents related to the software, for selecting the testing areas.

    Step2: Analyse all the required documents to get all the requirements mentioned by the end-user.

    Step3: Build test cases as per the requirement document.

    Step4: Execute all the test cases manually by using white-box testing and black-box testing.

    Step5: If bugs are detected, report them to the development team.

    Step6: When the developer fixes the bug, retest it.

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    What Is Boundary Value Testing

    Test boundary conditions on, below and above the edges of input and output equivalence classes. For instance, let say a bank application where you can withdraw maximum Rs.20,000 and a minimum of Rs.100, so in boundary value testing we test only the exact boundaries, rather than hitting in the middle. That means we test above the maximum limit and below the minimum limit.

    What Is The Difference Between Web Application And Desktop Application In The Scenario Of Testing

    The difference between a web application and desktop application is that a web application is open to the world with potentially many users accessing the application simultaneously at various times, so load testing and stress testing are important. Web applications are also prone to all forms of attacks, mostly DDOS, so security testing is also very important in the case of web applications.

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    What Are The Common Challenges In Mobile Application Testing Faced By Most Testers

    • Executing test cases with various operating systems
    • Testing applications functionalities on a wide range of handsets
    • Screen size fragmentation
    • Testing applications on different mobile networks
    • Different application types require different ways to test
    • The choice of the right mobile testing tool for QA team

    Mention What Is The Difference Between Scrum And Agile

    Top 50 Manual Testing Interview Questions | Software Testing Interview Preparation | Edureka
    • Scrum: In the scrum, a sprint is a basic unit of development. Each sprint is followed by a planning meeting, where the tasks for the sprint are identified and estimated. During each sprint, the team creates finished portion of a product
    • Agile: In Agile, each iteration involves a team working through a full software development cycle, including planning, design, coding, requirement analysis, unit testing, and acceptance testing when a product is demonstrated to stakeholders

    In simple words, Agile is the practice and scrum is the process to following this practice.

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    Explain How To Test Documents In A Project That Span Across The Software Development Lifecycle

    The project span across the software development lifecycle in the following manner

    • Central/Project test plan: It is the main test plan that outlines the complete test strategy of the project. This plan is used till the end of the software development lifecycle
    • Acceptance test plan: This document begins during the requirement phase and is completed at the final delivery
    • System test plan: This plan starts during the design plan and proceeds until the end of the project
    • Integration and Unit test plan: Both these test plans start during the execution phase and last until the final delivery

    What Is The Difference Between The White Box Black Box And Gray Box Testing

    Black box Testing: The strategy of black box testing is based on requirements and specification. It requires no need of knowledge of internal path, structure or implementation of the software being tested.

    White box Testing: White box testing is based on internal paths, code structure, and implementation of the software being tested. It requires a full and detail programming skill.

    Gray box Testing: This is another type of testing in which we look into the box which is being tested, It is done only to understand how it has been implemented. After that, we close the box and use the black box testing.

    Following are the differences among white box, black box, and gray box testing are:

    Black box testing Black box testing does not need the implementation knowledge of a program. Gray box testing knows the limited knowledge of an internal program. In white box testing, implementation details of a program are fully required. It has a low granularity. It has a medium granularity. It has a high granularity. It is also known as opaque box testing, closed box testing, input-output testing, data-driven testing, behavioral testing and functional testing. It is also known as translucent testing. It is also known as glass box testing, clear box testing. It is a user acceptance testing, i.e., it is done by end users. It is also a user acceptance testing. Testers and programmers mainly do it.

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    List Of The Best Practices For Android Testing

    • Developers must prepare the test cases when they are writing the codes simultaneously.
    • All of the test cases should be stored and well-documented for reusability.
    • Apply continuous integration and execute tests once the code is changed
    • Avoid using rooted devices and emulators to achieve the most reliable results

    Manual Testing Interview Questions For Freshers

    defect life cycle diagram

    Ques.1. What do you mean by Software Testing?Ans. Software testing is the process of evaluating a system to check if it satisfies its business requirements. It measures the overall quality of the system in terms of attributes. Like correctness, completeness, usability, performance, etc. Basically, it is used for ensuring the quality of software to the stakeholders of the application.

    Ques.2. Why is testing required?Ans. We need software testing for the following reasons-1. Testing provides an assurance to the stakeholders that the product works as intended.2. Avoidable defects leaked to the end-user/customer without proper testing adds a bad reputation to the development company.3. Defects detected earlier phase of SDLC results in lesser cost and resource utilization of correction.4. Saves development time by detecting issues in an earlier phase of development.5. The testing team adds another dimension to the software development by providing a different viewpoint to the product development process.

    Ques.4. What is Quality Assurance and what are the different activities involved in Quality assurance?Ans. Quality assurance is a process-driven approach that checks if the process of developing the product is correct and conforming to all the standards. It is considered a preventive measure. This is because it identifies the weakness in the process to build software. It involves activities like document review, test case review, walk-throughs, inspection, etc.

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    What Is The Difference Between Performance Testing And Functional Testing

    Functional Testing Performance Testing
    • It helps to verify the accuracy of the software with definite inputs against expected output, and functional Testing is done.
    • This Testing can be done manually or automated
    • One user performs all the operations
    • Customer, Tester and Development involvement is required
    • Production sized test environment is not necessary, and H/W requirements are minimal
    • To validate the behavior of the system at various load conditions performance testing is done.
    • It gives the best result if automated
    • Several users perform desired operations
    • Customer, Tester, Developer, DBA, and N/W management team
    • Requires close to a production test environment and several H/W facilities to populate the load

    List Of The Most Common Problem That Testers Face While Doing Mobile Testing On Cloud Computing

    Executing mobile testing in Cloud Computing poses various challenges for both beginners and advanced testers.

    • Subscription model:Even though Cloud solution offers testers a couple of advantages, there is a persistent concern about the subscription model.
    • High costs:While Cloud services have been sold as cost-savings solutions, the reality is that these services can be more expensive. The challenge can arise from the cost of the talent needed, the migration process to the teams mobile testing project.
    • Difficulties in mobile automated testing:As for some projects applying automated testing, Cloud computing may come with a pain point for every tester involved. Because mobile automation testing is image-based, executing test cases on Cloud computing would become more challenging and time-consuming. Moreover, automation testing cannot be used outside the framework.

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    In White Box Testing What Do You Verify

    In white box testing following steps are verified.

  • Verify the security holes in the code
  • Verify the incomplete or broken paths in the code
  • Verify the flow of structure according to the document specification
  • Verify the expected outputs
  • Verify all conditional loops in the code to check the complete functionality of the application
  • Verify the line by line coding and cover 100% testing
  • What Is Test Planning

    Top 25 Manual Testing Interview Questions

    Preparing to test mobile devices.

    Methods and tools continue to be developed to facilitate usability testing on phones and tablets. When planning a mobile device test, you should keep the following points in mind-

    • Your deadline and budget
    • The physical setup of the space and how you are going
    • Your target audience and device.

    Another important aspect after test planning is test equipment management.

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    What Are The Different Coverage Techniques

    Three basic types of coverage techniques are:

    • Statement coverage: This method helps ensure that every line of source code has been executed and tested.
    • It ensures that every decision in the source code has been executed and tested.
    • Path coverage: Verify that all possible routes have been tested through a given part of the code.

    Q24 What Is The Difference Between System Testing And Integration Testing

    System Testing Integration Testing

    System Testing tests the software application as a whole to check if the system is compliant with the user requirements

    Integration testing tests the interface between modules of the software application

    Involves both functional and non-functional testings like sanity, usability, performance, stress an load

    Only functional testing is performed to check whether the two modules when combined give the right outcome

    It is high-level testing performed after integration testing

    It is low-level testing performed after unit testing

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    Can Automated Testing Ever Replace Manual Testing

    Hiring managers often raise this issue because they want to know if you can advocate for the right type of testing. Explain why manual testing is uniquely important.

    Example:No, you can’t rely exclusively on automated testing. Even though manual testing takes longer, it can help you understand problems in a more human way, which can help you improve the customer experience.

    What Are The Other Ways To Test Mobile Devices

    defect life cycle diagram

    Some tests are available as apps for both iOS and Android platforms. To use them you have to download the desired app. Then follow the instructions to run the exam and save your result.

    Test speed equipment

    Speed Test SpeedSmart WiFi and Mobile Network SpeedTest It is compatible with Apple iPhone and iPad. It is a paid application. SpeedSmart is the ultimate iOS speed test utility to evaluate your cellular and Wi-Fi connections on all your iOS devices. A smart speed test and a global server network method ensure accurate results.

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    What Do You Know About Data Flow Testing

    It is one of the white-box testing techniques.

    Data flow testing emphasizes for designing test cases that cover control flow paths around variable definitions and their uses in the modules. It expects test cases to have the following attributes:

  • The input to the module
  • The control flow path for testing
  • A pair of an appropriate variable definition and its use
  • The expected outcome of the test case
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