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How To Cite A Personal Interview

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Presentation At Conference Or Symposium

How to cite an interview in APA | EasyBib

Whether youre citing a keynote address, a paper presentation as part of a symposium, or a poster presentation, follow the guidelines below. While some presentations are published after theyre given, others do not have a written component. If the presentation is published, follow the guidelines for citation as laid out in the Other Print Sources page. Be sure to include a URL if the publication is available online.

Presentation Without an Online Source

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. . Title of contribution . Title of Symposium/Conference, Location.

Matson, E. . Drones and autonomous vehicles: The latest new technology to come with potential threat . Dawn or Doom 2018 Conference, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States.

Presentation With Online Source

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. . Title of contribution . Title of Symposium/Conference, Location. URL

Bailey, C. . How to get your brain to focus . TEDxManchester, Manchester, U.K.

Individual Presentation in a Larger Symposium/Panel

Contributor, A. A., Contributor, B. B., Contributor, C. C., & Contributor, D. D. . Title of contribution. In E. E. Chairperson & F. F. Chairperson , Title of larger symposium/panel Title of symposium/conference, Location. URL if available

Unpublished Works

Unpublished Manuscript

Manuscript in Preparation

Manuscript Submitted for Publication

Primary Source Interview Criteria

As you know, a primary source is one that contains original material, not an evaluation of a source. In the case of interviews, if you find a published interview in a magazine, check these criteria to determine if its a primary or secondary source.

  • Was the interview conducted by the author themselves?
  • Is the interview about the subject?
  • Is the published version the original one?
  • Reference List: Other Non

    Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual , which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here.

    Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited non-print sources. For a complete list of how to cite non-print sources, please refer to the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual.


    Interviews fall into three categories: published interviews, personal interviews, and research participant interviews. However, only published interviews require a formal citation in your reference list.

    A published interview is found in places like a radio show, newspaper, or magazine. To cite a published interview, adhere to the format for that particular reference type . For more information on citing sources where an interview might appear, visit the Articles in Periodicals page or the Electronic Sources page.

    A personal interview is considered personal communication and does not require a formal citation in your reference list. See below for more information.

    A research participant interview is an interview conducted as part of your research project. You might address this in the body of your paper, saying something like, As part of my study, I interviewed fifty participants about their involvement with intramural sports. However, you do not need to formally cite this in your reference list.

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    Citing Your Personal Communication

    In a parenthetical citation, use the words “personal communication” and the exact date that the personal communication occurred. Here is an example of a parenthetical citation of a personal communication:

    Fruity candy is much better than chocolate .

    When referencing the source of your personal communication in text, however, you do not need to include the source’s name in the parenthetical citation. Here is an example of an in text citation:

    J. Smith proudly stated that fruity candy is much better than chocolate .

    Although you are required to cite personal communications whenever you are referencing information from that source, personal communications should not be included in your references list. Instead, when you cite a personal communication, the exact date of when this personal communication occurred is sufficient information for the reader.

    How To Cite An Interview In

    How to cite a interview in an essay.

    Using an interview in your research paper gives a readers a firsthand account of the topic. Modern Language Association style has three ways to cite interviews on a bibliography and one in-text method. The bibliography citation depends upon whether you are using a personal interview you conducted yourself, an interview published in a printed reference or an interview published online. Yet the in-text citation is the same regardless.

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    Citing A Newspaper Interview

    The United States aims to return its space program to its former glory. Bridenstine stated that A big objective is to once again launch American astronauts on American rockets from American soil.

    Note: Under this section on the APA website given, the second example doesnt hold true in Harvard. The above format is the one main one followed in Harvard referencing, where the name of the interviewee is mentioned, followed by the year of the interview in .


    How Do You Quote Someone With A Name Example

    Leave a blank line before and after the quote and indent the whole quote from the left margin. Do not add quotation marks. Introduce the quote using your own words followed by : a colon if you have written a complete sentence or a comma if you use a phrase such as according to along with the authors name.

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    How To Quote A Personal Interview In Mla

    You have an amazing interview that will be perfect for your MLA paper. But, you dont know how to cite an interview in MLA. If you interview a person, cite your entry the same way you would a personal communication. You can do this one of three ways: email, telephone, and in person. In all cases, youll follow the container system with the nine core elements of MLA style citation.

    Learn how to do all three MLA 8 interview citation types by following these examples.

    Example Email Interview Citation

    Last Name of Person Who Was Interviewed, First Name. Subject Line of Email. Received by Name of Person Who Received Email, Day Month Year of Email. Email Interview.

    Anaya, Rudolfo. Re: Banning of Bless Me Ultima. Received by Jessica Carranza, 4 June 2019. Email Interview.

    Example In-Person Interview Citation

    Last Name of Person Interviewed, First Name. Interview. By Interviewer First Name Last Name. Day Month Year of Interview.

    Anaya, Rudolfo. Interview. By Jessica Carranza. 4 June 2019.

    Example Telephone Interview Citation

    Last Name of Person Interviewed, First Name. Interview. Day Month Year of Interview. By Interviewer First Name Last Name. Telephone Interview.

    Anaya, Rudolfo. Interview. 4 June 2019. By Jessica Carranza. Telephone interview.

    When Is Personal Communication Used In Citation

    Citing an Interview in MLA Style

    The category “Personal Communications” is used in situations where you are taking information from a source such as an email thread or an interview you conducted with someone else. In this case the work isn’t published anywhere someone else couldn’t find and read the full interview or email on their own.

    Sometimes you may find interviews with people in journals, magazines, newspapers, websites, etc. In those cases don’t use the “Personal Communications” category. Instead, cite them according to where you found the information.

    For example, an interview in a magazine would be cited like a magazine article. That way anyone reading your assignment could easily track down the interview for themselves by finding the same magazine article.

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    How Do You Reference A Conversation

    Some of them will consist of personal communications, or personal conversations, emails, class lectures, performance art, or research interviews. Cite personal communications only in the text, give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide the exact date if possible (see APA, section 6.20, p.

    Citing Published Interviews In Apa

    If you want to include information from an interview that has been published and can be retrieved by the reader, then you can cite it as you would normally cite that type of source.

    The author is the person who wrote the article . The name of the person interviewed is not included in the citation or in the reference list.

    However, its important to make it clear exactly who said what when you quote from an interview conducted by someone else.

    Example: quoting with unclear attribution

    The citation here implies that this quote is from Davenport but in fact, it is a quote from Jim Bridenstine, who is interviewed in Davenports article.

    In this case, you should clearly state the interviewees name in the sentence to make it clear who is responsible for the quote.

    Example: clearly attributing a quote to the original source

    The format of the reference list entry depends on the type of source the interview was published in.

    You can use our quick citation examples to correctly cite interviews published in other source types.

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    Citing A Published Interview

    Citations of interviews that have been published in any type of source follow the format for the type of source in which they were published. The only difference from the usual formats is that the note and bibliography entry both begin with the name of the person being interviewed.

    Include the the interviewers name after the title. If the name of the person interviewed is mentioned in the title, the name can be omitted from the start of a note , but it should always appear in the bibliography entry.

    Click through the tabs below to see how to cite interviews from journals, videos, and magazines.

    Solution #: How To Cite A Text Message Or Personal Email In Apa

    4 Ways to Cite an Interview

    Personal emails or text messages are considered forms of personal communication. Since they are unpublished and cannot be accessed by anyone else, they should not be included on the reference sheet. An in-text citation should be made indicating that it was obtained through personal communication, including the persons name and the date that the communication happened.


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    Citing A Published Interview In Mla

    To cite an interview that you found in a published source , treat the person being interviewed as the author, and put the title of the interview in quotation marks. Then include full details of the source according to the MLA core elements.

    In the parenthetical citation, include the interviewees last name and the page number.

    Mla Works Cited: Other Common Sources


    MLA style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook , offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

    Several sources have multiple means for citation, especially those that appear in varied formats: films, DVDs, television shows, music, published and unpublished interviews, interviews over e-mail, published and unpublished conference proceedings. The following section discusses these sorts of citations as well as others not covered in the print, periodical, and electronic sources sections.

    Use the following format for all sources:

    An Interview

    Interviews typically fall into two categories: print or broadcast published and unpublished interviews, although interviews may also appear in other, similar formats such as in e-mail format or as a Web document.

    Personal Interviews

    Personal interviews refer to those interviews that you conduct yourself. List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Include the descriptor Personal interview and the date of the interview.

    Smith, Jane. Personal interview. 19 May 2014.

    Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title, add the descriptor, Interview by after the interviewees name and before the interviewers name.

    Gaitskill, Mary. Interview with Charles Bock. Mississippi Review, vol. 27, no. 3, 1999, pp. 129-50.


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    Answered By: Vicki Sciuklast Updated: Oct 28 2021 Views: 29307

    From the Purdue University Owl & APA Style websites on citing a personal communications in APA format:

    Personal interviews, emails, phone conversations, text messages, live speeches, and social media messages are all examples of personal communication. No personal communication is included in your reference list instead, parenthetically cite the communicator’s name, the phrase “personal communication,” and the date of the communication in your main text only.

    Here are two examples of how to create in-text citations for personal communications.

    A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style.

    You can find additional guidance on citing in APA Style, 7th edition, from the Center for Academic Success Writing and Citing LibGuide – APA citations.

    Accurate Mla 8 Interview Citation Style

    MLA Format Works Cited Personal Interview

    Knowing how to quote an interview in MLA can come in handy. Using personal or published interviews is a good way to give your readers a direct link to the mind of your subject. You can direct your questions to help guide your project and develop your thesis. Cite your sources in MLA format accurately so researchers can readily access your reference material.

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    Purdue Owl How To Cite A Personal Interview Apa In Text

    Purdue Owl How To Cite A Personal Interview Apa In Text? Interviews, Email, and Other Personal CommunicationNo personal communication is included in your reference list instead, parenthetically cite the communicators name, the phrase personal communication, and the date of the communication in your main text only. .

    How do you cite a personal interview in APA in-text? If you would like to include a personal interview as part of your APA reference list, then include the interviewee, the date of the interview, and the type of interview. Interview Citation Structure: Last name, F. .

    How do you in-text cite a personal interview? To cite an interview that you conducted yourself, start the Works Cited entry with the name of the interviewee. Then simply describe it with the word Interview, followed by your own name and the date on which the interview took place. Works Cited entry Gray, Alasdair.

    How do you reference personal communication? Cite personal communications only in the text, give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide the exact date if possible . In text format: According to S.

    Interview In A Journal

    For an interview published in an academic journal, you need to include the journal name, volume and number, the date or year, and the page range. If you accessed the interview on an online database, include the name of the database and the DOI or stable URL.


    Read more about MLA journal citations.

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    How Do I Cite A Personal Interview That Occurred On More Than One Day

    Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook. For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook.

    To cite a personal interview that occurred on more than one day, begin by following the MLA format template. In general, treat the person being interviewed as the author. Then follow the guidelines on pages 2829 of the MLA Handbook and include the description interview as the Title of source element. You may list the interviewers name as an Other contributor after the description. In the Publication date slot, treat the dates of the interview as a range if they are consecutive:

    Cohen, Allan. Interview. Conducted by Christine Stevens, 24-25 May 2016.

    If the dates are not consecutive, treat them as a series:

    Doe, Jane. Interview. Conducted by John Smith, 3 and 6 Aug. 2017.

    Doe, John. Interview. Conducted by Jorge Menocal, 2, 3, and 7 Sept. 2016.

    Do You Need To Cite Personal Communication

    How To Cite A Personal Interview Mla

    You do not include personal communication in your reference list instead, parenthetically cite the communicators name, the phrase personal communication, and the date of the communication in your main text only. Although you do not need to cite personal communication, do try to locate a source when possible.

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    How To Note The Type Of Interview

    The APA offers some guidelines for how to handle different types of interviews:

    • Personal interviews: Whether your interview was conducted in person or via text or telephone, you should cite the information as a personal communication.
    • Emails: Because emails are not retrievable by other readers, the APA considers these as personal communications. They should be cited only in-text just as other interview sources and should not be included in your reference list.
    • Class lectures: Like emails, information taken from a class lecture, guest lecture, or group discussion cannot be accessed by other readers, so it should be cited as personal communication.
    • Research interviews: If you are interviewing a research subject, you will need to preserve the participants anonymity for ethical reasons. When referring to a specific participant, whether by summarizing their results or directly quoting their comments, you should be careful to avoid providing any identifying information. You might simply state that the individual is a participant or you might refer to them by non-identifying letters or nicknames .

    How Do You Cite A Quote From A Person

    When citing a direct quote by someone who is not the author of the source, you should introduce the person in your writing, use double quotation marks for the quote, rather than the usual single quotation marks for direct quotes by the author of the source, and add the page number within the bracketed citation, or, for

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    Citing An Interview In Mla Style

    In an MLA Works Cited entry for an interview published in a newspaper, you list the interviewee in the author element. Clarify who conducted the interview after the title, and use the interviewees name in the in-text citation.

    MLA format Interviewee last name, First name. Interview Title. Interview by Interviewer first name Last name. Newspaper Name, Day Month Year, URL. or p. Page number.
    1. Kazuo Ishiguro: AI, Gene-Editing, Big Data I Worry We Are Not in Control of These Things Any More,’ interview by Lisa Allardice, Guardian, February 20, 2021,

    2. Ishiguro, AI, Gene-Editing, Big Data.

    For interviews published in other source types, follow the relevant format , always listing the interviewee as the author.

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