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How To Write A Citation For A Personal Interview

How to cite an interview in APA | EasyBib

Personal interviews can offer researchers information straight from the source, and conducting such discussions over the phone allows the writer to speak with a broader spectrum of people.

Interviews are helpful to humanities scholars because they gather narratives and perspectives that provide a broad cultural context.

They are most typically connected with qualitative research performed in the social sciences. Researchers can use the Modern Language Association or MLA format to correctly document personal telephone conversations in their writing.

Interviews And Personal Communication

Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

In citations for interviews and personal communications, the name of the person interviewed or the person from whom the communication is received should be listed first. This is followed by the name of the interviewer or recipient, if given, and supplemented by details regarding the place and date of the interview/communication. Unpublished interviews and personal communications are best cited in-text or in notes rather than in the bibliography. Published interviews should be cited like periodical articles or book chapters.

Interviews with anonymous sources can be cited without including the name of the sourcee.g. anonymous informant #3 or recreational psilocybin userbut you must explain in the text why you are not giving the name of your source.

Unpublished Interviews

Note: If the interview is unpublished, but there is a transcript or recording available, you should include information as to where said transcript/recording can be found. This can be as simple as a URL, or as complex as a location in an institutional archive the latter is shown in the example below.

Title of Broadcasting ProgramTitle of Broadcasting Program

This is shown in the second example.

ycamore Review,Acoustic Café

Personal Communications

  • Navigation

Solution #: How To Create Citations For Different Types Of Interviews

Interviews include interactions in both writing a speaking.

To write a published interview citation:

  • Write the authors name in last name, first name format.
  • Write the interview title in quotation marks.
  • Write Interview by followed by the full first name and last name of the interviewer.
  • List the title of the periodical or journal in italics followed by a comma.
  • After the comma, write the date the source was published followed by another comma.
  • Lastly, write the page span abbreviated as pp. followed a period.
  • Works cited entry example:

    Johnson, Crystal. Crystals Everyday Life. Interview by Elizabeth Miller. The Hypothetical Interviewers Column, May 2020, pp. 19-20.

    To write a published interview citation found online:

  • Write the authors name in last name, first name format.
  • Write the interview title in quotation marks.
  • Write Interview by followed by the full first name and last name of the interviewer.
  • List the title of the periodical or journal in italics followed by a comma.
  • After the comma, write the date the source was published followed by another comma.
  • Type the URL followed by a period.
  • Lastly, type accessed and list the date that the source was found.
  • Works cited entry example:

    Johnson, Crystal. Crystals Everyday Life. Interview by Elizabeth Miller. The Hypothetical Interviewers Column, May 2020, http://hypothetical_interviewers_com_CJohnson. Accessed 1 May 2021.

    Interview via email

    To write an email citation:

    Works cited entry example:

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    Citing A Video Interview In Chicago

    Notes-Bibliography format

    In-text citation template and example:

    Example sentence.1

  • Interviewee First Name Surname, Interview Title, interview by First Name Surname, Title of Broadcasting Program, Publisher Name, Date, video, length of interview minutes: seconds, URL.

  • Each and every time the newspapers are 1

  • Donald Trump, Maria Bartiromo Interviews Donald Trump on Fox Business, interview by Maria Bartiromo, Mornings with Maria, Fox Business, August 13, 2020, video, 40:46, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OL08DwwU0sk.

  • When citing a source in the first instance, provide full information in the first note. If the same source is cited in multiple instances, you can provide only short information for the source such as the surname of the person interviewed, and the communication cited.

  • Trump, interview.

  • Bibliography entry template and example:

    Interviewee Surname, First Name. Interview Title. Interview by First Name Surname. Title of Broadcasting Program, Publisher Name, Date, Video, Length of Interview Minutes: Seconds. URL.

    Trump, Donald. Maria Bartiromo Interviews Donald Trump on Fox Business. Interview by Maria Bartiromo. Mornings with Maria, Fox Business, August 13, 2020. Video, 40:46. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OL08DwwU0sk.

    When citing a video interview in Chicago style, use the interviewee surname and the year for narrative and parenthetical citations.

    In-text citation template and example:

    Narrative:

    Reference list entry template and example:

    Primary Source Interview Criteria

    How to Cite an Interview Harvard Style: 10 Steps (with Pictures)

    As you know, a primary source is one that contains original material, not an evaluation of a source. In the case of interviews, if you find a published interview in a magazine, check these criteria to determine if its a primary or secondary source.

  • Was the interview conducted by the author themselves?
  • Is the interview about the subject?
  • Is the published version the original one?
  • Recommended Reading: What Should I Take To An Interview

    Tips For Conducting Effective Investigation Interviews

    Use these tactics to ensure your interviews are fair, thorough and defensible in court

    A good investigation interview is only as good as the person conducting it. As with all skills, practice makes perfect, but theres no harm getting a bit of help along the way. Follow these 40 tips to get the most out of your interview subjects and to determine what questions to ask in the investigation interview.

    Answered By: Katie Hutchisonlast Updated: Aug 08 2016 Views: 1968

    Interviews typically fall into two categories: print or broadcast published and unpublished interviews, although interviews may also appear in other, similar formats such as in email format or as a Web document.

    Personal Interviews

    Personal interviews refer to those interviews that you conduct yourself. List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Include the descriptor Personal interview and the date of the interview.

    Purdue, Pete. Personal interview. 1 Dec. 2000.

    List the interview by the name of the interviewee. If the name of the interview is part of a larger work like a book, a television program, or a film series, place the title of the interview in quotation marks. Place the title of the larger work in italics. If the interview appears as an independent title, italicize it. Determine the medium of publication and fill in the rest of the entry with the information required by that medium. For books, include the author or editor name after the book title.

    Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title, add the descriptor Interview after the interviewees name. You may also use the descriptor Interview by to add the name of the interview to the entry if it is relevant to your paper.

    Gaitskill, Mary. Interview with Charles Bock. Mississippi Review 27.3 : 129-50. Print.

    Amis, Kingsley. Mimic and Moralist.Interviews with Britains Angry Young Men. By Dale Salwak. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo, 1984. Print.

    Online-only Published Interviews

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    How To Cite Personal Communications

    If you want to cite information you received directly from another person, but a full interview wasnt conducted, you can cite that information as personal communications. Like unattributed or anonymous interviews, personal communications can be cited within the text or in the notes, and it is not necessary to create a bibliography entry.

    Citing Personal Interviews Vs Published Interviews

    Citing an Interview in MLA Style

    Personal or unpublished interviews are those that you conduct yourself with the interviewee. Personal interviews have not been published anywhere, making them very simple to cite across all style guides. However, a published interview requires a more complicated web of information.

    As youll see, each citation style has different rules for different types of interviews. In general, however, just remember that a citation to a published interview must also include a citation to the publication.

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    How To Cite A Video Interview: Chicago Style

    Citing a video interview Chicago is easy if you know basic rules. You may need this knowledge if you use some video source with a conversation with some expert or a research object. First, lets discuss a format that enables you to include a video in your bibliography.For this, you should use this format: last and first name of an interviewee, video title, last and first name of the journalist, month, day and year, quote timestamp in a video, and URL where it is located.This is how your citation may look.

    You can also draw a video interview as a full-fledged note if you need to put some reference at the bottom of the page where you mention it. In this case, you should successively put last and first name of the interviewee, video title, last and first name of the journalist, publication date, video duration or quote timestamp, and URL address.Here is formula and example of full note citation:

    The easiest way is to cite a video interview as a short note in this case, you should only put the last and first name of the interviewee, video title, and quote beginning time. Keep in mind that when the last and first name are included in your video title, you dont have to mention them separately.This is how short note citation looks:

    Citing A Published Interview In Chicago

    Notes-Bibliography format

    In-text citation template and example:

    Example sentence.1

  • Interviewee First Name Surname, Interview Title, by Author First Name Surname, Periodical Title, Date, page number or URL.

  • Each and every time the newspapers are 1

  • Omid Djalili, Sunday with Omid Djalili: Im too old and fat for football, by Michael Segalov, The Guardian, January 17, 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2021/jan/17/sunday-with-omid-djalili-im-too-old-and-fat-for-football.

  • When citing a source in the first instance, provide full information in the first note. If the same source is cited in multiple instances, you can provide only short information for the source such as the surname of the person interviewed, and first four words of the articles title.

  • Djalili, Sunday with Omid Djalili.

  • Bibliography entry template and example:

    Interviewee Surname, First Name. Interview Title. By Author First Name Surname. Periodical Title. Date. Page number or URL.

    Djalili, Omid. Sunday with Omid Djalili: Im too old and fat for football. By Michael Segalov. The Guardian. January 17, 2021. https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2021/jan/17/sunday-with-omid-djalili-im-too-old-and-fat-for-football.

    When citing a published interview in Chicago style, use the interviewee surname and the year for narrative and parenthetical citations.

    In-text citation template and example:

    Narrative:

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    How To Cite An Interview In Apa

    In APA citation, the interviews that you perform yourself have a different format as compared to published interviews. When citing the latter, the standard format of the source that it was published is to be followed. On the other hand, your own interview that is not accessible to the reader should not be added in the reference list. It is instead cited in the text as a personal communication.

    Crafting Your Reference List Entry

    How To Cite A Personal Interview
  • 1Start with the name of the person interviewed and the year. For an interview, the name of the person interviewed goes in the spot where the author of the work would normally go. Type the person’s last name, followed by a comma, then their first initial. If their middle initial is also provided, include it immediately after the first name with no intervening punctuation. Place a period after the final initial, then add the year the person was interviewed in parentheses.XResearch source
  • Example: Potter, H.
  • 2Include the title of the interview if applicable. Some interviews, particularly those in newspapers or magazines, have a distinct title. If the interview you’re referencing has a title, type it after the year. Use sentence case, capitalizing only the first word and any proper nouns in the title. Place a period at the end.XResearch source
  • Example: Potter, H. Something wicked this way comes.
  • Tip: Many of the elements included in the general interview reference template won’t be available for every source. Only include the information that’s available or applicable to your source and leave the rest out. There’s no need to indicate in any way that certain elements were unavailable.

  • Example: Potter, H. Something wicked this way comes. Interview by Barnabus Cuffe. The Daily Prophet.
  • Broadcast Example: Potter, H. Something wicked this way comes. Interviewed by Barnabus Cuffe, WWBC News. WWBC, 7 July.
  • Harvard General Interview Template

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    When To Use An Interview

    There are a number of reasons why you might want to conduct an interview to gather information for your paper.

    Some reasons you might want to use an interview:

    • You have further questions that you want to ask an expert or researcher
    • The written information on a topic is scant
    • An expert is able to offer specific insights that you cannot find elsewhere

    Practice Your Speaking Voice And Body Language

    Its important to make a positive and lasting impression during the interview process. You can do this by practicing a confident, strong speaking voice and friendly, open body language. While these might come naturally to you, you might also want to spend time performing them with trusted friends or family or in front of a mirror. Pay special attention to your smile, handshake and stride.

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    Solution #: How To Cite A Professors Lecture You Attended In

    Unless the lecture has been recorded and published, notes and quotes collected from a lecture are considered forms of personal communication. Therefore, it does not need to be included on your reference sheet according to APA guidelines. An in-text citation should be made indicating that the information or quote was obtained through personal communication, the date it was retrieved, and the professors name.

    In-text citation structure & example:

    If it is required to cite the lecture in the reference sheet, the entry needs to include the same information.

    Reference list entry structure & example:

    Professors last name, first initial. . Personal Communication.

    Espinoza, P. . Personal Communication.

    If the lecture has been recorded and is available online, it must be included in the reference sheet and is no longer considered a form of personal communication.

    Reference list entry structure & example:

    Professors last name, first initial. . Lecture name. publication. URL.

    Espinoza, P. . Mesopotamia. University of Chegg. https://example.website.here.

    How Do I Cite An Interview Conducted By E

    Research Papers : How to Cite an Interview in APA Style

    Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook. For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook.

    Follow the MLA format template. Treat the person being interviewed as the author. Then provide a description that includes the format in the Title of source slot. You may list the interviewers name as an Other contributor after the description. Then list the date on which the interview was conducted.

    Smith, Helen. E-mail interview. Conducted by Rachel Green, 6 June 2017.

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    How To Cite An Interview: Definition

    When learning how to cite an interview, there are a few basic rules that need to be followed for both APA and MLA styles. However, the basic rule is that you should list first the name of the interviewee. This is then followed by the interviewers name, if provided, and place and date that the communication or interview occurred. Here is how to cite an interview in both formatting styles.

    How To Prepare For An Interview In 11 Steps

    Related: How to Prepare for An Interview – The Best Pre-Interview Strategy

    In this video, Jenn, an Indeed Career Coach, shares her recommended strategy for interview research and preparation.

    Preparing for an interview might seem intimidating, but there are several steps you can take to prepare yourself for a successful interview. In this article, we create an interviewing prep checklist with 11 items.

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    Prepare Thoughtful Questions For The Interviewer

    Many employers feel confident about candidates who ask thoughtful questions about the company and the position. You should take time before the interview to prepare several questions for your interviewer that show youve researched the company and are well-versed about the position. Some examples of questions you could ask include:

    • What does a typical day look like for a person in this position?

    • Why do you enjoy working here?

    • What qualities do your most successful employees have?

    • Ive really enjoyed learning more about this opportunity. What are the next steps in the hiring process?

    Related: Interview Question: Do You Have Any Questions?

    Related: Interview Stage: Questions To Ask the Interviewer

    In this video, Jenn, a career coach at Indeed, provides a comprehensive look at the interviewing process and shares tips on how to position yourself for success by knowing which questions to ask the interviewer.

    How To Cite Interviews In Harvard Style

    How To Cite A Personal Interview

    Published by Alaxendra Bets at August 27th, 2021 , Revised On July 6, 2022

    Interviews are a very important source of information for any writer. Whether its a report, a thesis or even a short review of a product, citing interviews in any kind of text is a huge part of referenced material.

    How an interview is cited in Harvard referencing depends, mainly, on the kind of platform the interview was published at and/or retrieved from.

    The basic format for citing and referencing interviews in Harvard is:

    In-text citation:

    Reference list entry: Author Surname, Author Initial . Title in italics.

    For example:

    In-text citation: Eckermann, R. . About Smart Grid Data Communication Architectures in Australia.

    Reference list entry: Adjunct Professor at the University of Canberra, Member of Regional Telecommunications, President of Smart Grid Australia, and Representative of CURRENT Australia.

    Following are the main types of interviews published online and how theyre cited in Harvard style, based on their sources.

    Recommended Reading: How To Prepare For Ml Interview

    Before You Do An Interview

    There are some things that you should consider before you reach out to an expert for an interview. First and foremost, do not interview someone about the information that is easily available in . You are responsible for conducting your own background research on a topic.

    Once you have done a thorough literature review and it becomes clear that there are knowledge gaps in the information that is publicly available, then consider reaching out to an expert for additional insight.

    Next, you should always approach the interview subject respectfully.

    • Be observant of their time constraints
    • Be willing to conduct the interview on the subjects schedule
    • Conduct the interview in the manner that best suits the subjects needs, whether it is by phone, interview, or text
    • Have your questions prepared in advance
    • Send a follow-up note or email thanking them for their time

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