Q16 What Is Lambda In Python State Its Uses
In Python, lambda is an anonymous function. It can accept multiple arguments but has only a single expression. Lambda functions are used in situations needing an anonymous function for a short span of time. The uses of lambda functions are:
- They are used as small, single-line functions.
- They make code easier to read.
What Is The Relevance Of Apache Hadoop’s Distributed Cache
Hadoop Distributed Cache is a Hadoop MapReduce Framework technique that provides a service for copying read-only files, archives, or jar files to worker nodes before any job tasks are executed on that node. To minimize network bandwidth, files are usually copied only once per job. Distributed Cache is a program that distributes read-only data/text files, archives, jars, and other files.
How Would You Check The Validity Of Data Migration Between Databases
A data engineer’s primary concerns should be maintaining the accuracy of the data and preventing data loss. The purpose of this question is to help the hiring managers understand how you would validate data.
You must be able to explain the suitable validation types in various instances. For instance, you might suggest that validation can be done through a basic comparison or after the complete data migration.
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What According To You Are The Daily Responsibilities Of A Data Engineer
This question assesses your understanding of the role of a data engineer role and job description.
You can explain some crucial tasks a data engineer like:
- Development, testing, and maintenance of architectures.
- Aligning the design with business requisites.
- Data acquisition and development of data set processes.
- Deploying machine learning and statistical models
- Developing pipelines for various ETL operations and data transformation
- Simplifying data cleansing and improving the de-duplication and building of data.
- Identifying ways to improve data reliability, flexibility, accuracy, and quality.
This is one of the most commonly asked data engineer interview questions.
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What Are The Design Schemas Of Data Modeling
Design schemas are fundamental to data engineering, so try to be accurate while explaining the concepts in everyday language. There are two schemas: star schema and snowflake schema.
Star schema has a fact table that has several associated dimension tables, so it looks like a star and is the simplest type of data warehouse schema. Snowflake schema is an extension of a star schema and adds additional dimension tables that split the data up, flowing out like a snowflakeâs spokes.
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What Is Your Approach To Developing A New Analytical Product As A Data Engineer
The hiring managers want to know your role as a data engineer in developing a new product and evaluate your understanding of the product development cycle. As a data engineer, you control the outcome of the final product as you are responsible for building algorithms or metrics with the correct data.
Your first step would be to understand the outline of the entire product to comprehend the complete requirements and scope. Your second step would be looking into the details and reasons for each metric. Think about as many issues that could occur, and it helps you to create a more robust system with a suitable level of granularity.
The Data Engineering Interview Process:
This is the general process most companies follow :
Data Engineer vs. Software Developer Interviews :
As a data engineer, you dont have to focus on HARD Leetcode questions. Also, coding the problems tends to be more like data engineering work than hardcore algo questions.
Save yourself the effort and only prepare for LC easy and medium.
Sounds like a cakewalk, right? WRONG.
Comes in the dreaded Advanced SQL + Spark: As a data engineer, writing complex SQL queries must be your strength. That means that not just INSERT, DELETE, WHERE statements, you need to know things like:
Spark Coding Practice: The content on this is not very widely available. Only a few websites provide you with Spark interview questions. Ill compile some questions in the coming days.
What Are The Key Differences Between Star Schema And Snowflake Schema
Following is the list of key differences between Star schema and Snowflake schema:
|In Star schema, the dimension table contains the hierarchies for the dimensions.||In the Snowflake schema, there are separate tables for hierarchies.|
|In this schema, the dimension tables cover a fact table.||In this schema, the dimension tables cover a fact table, and then they are further covered by dimension tables.|
|In this schema, the fact table and dimension table are connected by a single join.||In this schema, many joins are used to fetch the data.|
|It has a simple DB design.||It has a complex DB design.|
|It can work fine even with denormalized queries and data structures.||It works well only with the normalized data structure.|
|In this schema, a single dimension contains the aggregated data.||Here, data is split into different dimension tables.|
|Data redundancy is high in Star schema.||Data redundancy is very low in the Snowflake schema.|
|It provides faster cube processing.||Due to complex joins, cube processing is slow in the Snowflake schema.|
Which Python Libraries Would You Use For Efficient Data Processing
Python is one of the most popular languages used for data engineering. This question lets you know if the candidate knows the basics of Python. The answer should include NumPy and pandas.
NumPy is used for efficient processing of arrays of numbers, and pandas is great for stats, which are the bread and butter of data science work. Pandas is also good for preparing data for machine learning work. You can ask a candidate why they would use those libraries, and also ask for examples of situations where they would not use them.
From here, you can ask specific Python coding questions, such as:
- How would you transpose this data?
- How would you filter out outliers?
Here are two examples based on the Pandas library documentation:
# Here is the datadf = pd.DataFrame# How to transpose it?df_transposed = df.T# How to filter out the outliers?df_no_outliers = df.ge.le
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Can You Explain The Working Of A Selection Sort
Selection sort follows a simple process to sort a list of elements. To start, the list is divided into two parts. The part on the left is sorted and the part on the right is unsorted. Initially, the list is unsorted so only the first element is on the left.
We then scan the array and find the smallest element. That element is swapped with the first element and becomes part of the sorted array. We then repeat this process with the second element and so on. The following image depicts the process.
Access Common String Groups With String Constants
Its trivia time! Is A> a true or false?
Its false, because the ASCII code for A is 65, but a is 97, and 65 is not greater than 97.
Why does the answer matter? Because if you want to check if a character is part of the English alphabet, one popular way is to see if its between A and z .
Checking the ASCII code works but is clumsy and easy to mess up in coding interviews, especially if you cant remember whether lowercase or uppercase ASCII characters come first. Its much easier to use the constants defined as part of the string module.
You can see one in use in is_upper, which returns whether all characters in a string are uppercase letters:
> > > importstring> > > defis_upper:... forletterinword:... ifletternotinstring.ascii_uppercase:... returnFalse... returnTrue...> > > is_upperFalse> > > is_upperTrue
is_upper iterates over the letters in word, and checks if the letters are part of string.ascii_uppercase. If you print out string.ascii_uppercase youll see that its just a lowly string. The value is set to the literal ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ.
All string constants are just strings of frequently referenced string values. They include the following:
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What Is Hadoop Streaming
It is a utility or feature included with a Hadoop distribution that allows developers or programmers to construct Map-Reduce programs in many programming languages such as Python, C++, Ruby, Pearl, and others. We can use any language that can read from standard input , such as keyboard input, and write using standard output .
Write A Class To Represent An Integer And A Function To Return Whether Or Not Is A Palindrome
This question tests your ability to write a simple class in Python as well as your ability to think quickly by writing a function to test whether an integer is a palindrome or not. An integer is considered a palindrome if it reads the same forward and backward. The number 34543 is an example of a palindrome, while the number 123 is a non-example. One possible solution to this problem is shown below.
It is a good practice during a coding interview to pay attention to details, including checking for error conditions during the initialization of your class and including docstrings for all classes and functions that you define. Even if you donât explicitly write these down on the whiteboard due to space or time constraints, make sure you mention how you would normally provide such details in actual code.
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What Are Some Of The Important Features Of Hadoop
- Hadoop is an open-source framework.
- Hadoop works on the basis of distributed computing.
- It provides faster data processing due to parallel computing.
- Data is stored in separate clusters away from the operations.
- Data redundancy is given priority to ensure no data loss.
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Q2 Is Python Allowed In Coding Interviews
Yes, and yet it depends upon the process of each company. Python can be allowed in coding rounds, and some companies conduct the python interview questions via platforms such as HackerRank and alike.
We hope this repository of python interview questions for data science and Data Science interview questions have been useful to you. For brighter job prospects, you may also consider a Global Certification Course in Python for Data Science.
If you have any questions or want to share your feedback, reach out to us in the comments section below. Happy Learning!
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In This Example Web App What Data Points Would You Collect
The example web app could be a calendar similar to Outlook or Google calendar. In that case, it would be worthwhile to collect data on which calendar views are being used.
This question asks the data engineer candidate to analyze and understand the domain theyre working in. They need to understand the domain theyre working with because collecting data from a calendar web app can differ vastly from collecting data from IoT devices.
While a data engineer does not need to implement the code that records data points in the web app, they should be able to understand the needs of developers who do need to implement that code. You can guide the candidate to a more specific answer by asking additional questions such as: what data would we need to collect to find out how users are using certain features?
If you want to know if a data engineer candidate understands that problem domain, ask this question.
Walk Me Through A Project You Worked On From Start To Finish
What theyâre really asking: How do you think through the process of acquiring, cleaning, and presenting data?
Youâll definitely be asked a question about your thought process and methodology for completing a project. Hiring managers want to know how you transformed the unstructured data into a complete product. Youâll want to practice explaining your logic for choosing certain algorithms in an easy-to-understand manner, to demonstrate you really know what youâre talking about. Afterward, youâll be asked follow-up questions based on this project.
The interviewer might also ask:
What was the most challenging project youâve worked on, and how did you complete it?
What is your process when you start a new project?
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Q5 What Do You Understand About Inheritance In Python
To answer this Python data structure interview question, you should know that inheritance is the property of one class to attain all the members of another class. Inheritance allows the reusability of code and makes it easier to create an application. It gives rise to two types of classes:
- Superclass is the class from which we are inheriting. It is also called the base class.
- Derived Class is the class that is inherited. It is also called the child class.
The various types of inheritance in Python are:
- Single Inheritance is when a derived class takes the members of a single superclass.
- Multi-level inheritance is when a derived class d1 is inherited from the base class- base1, and another derived class d2 is inherited from base2.
- Hierarchical inheritance allows the inheritance of a number of child classes from a single base class.
- Multiple inheritances are when a child class is inherited from more than one superclass.
Data Engineer Interview Questions On Data Lake
Data lakes are the ideal way to store the company’s historical data because they can store a lot of data at a low cost. Data lake enables users to switch back and forth between data engineering and use cases like interactive analytics and machine learning. Azure Data Lake, a cloud platform, supports big data analytics by providing unlimited storage for structured, semi-structured, or unstructured data. Take a look at some important data engineering interview questions on Azure Data Lake.
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Python Data Engineer Interview Question #: Expensive Projects
Link to the question:
There are two tables for this question. The first table called âproject_titleâ has the name/title of the project, project ID and its budget.
The next table is called âms_emp_projectâ, which has employee ID mapped to each project ID.
How To Nail Your Next Tech Interview
Python is a language that allows you to create dynamic programs. Programming languages rely on data structures and algorithms, which are important and difficult to master. This is why hiring managers choose Python data structure interview questions when interviewing candidates for software engineering positions.
Going through essential theoretical concepts and exercising problem-solving skills is the best method to prepare for data structures in Python interview questions. It is highly advised that you answer at least 1-2 Python data structures interview questions per day if you have a technical interview coming up.
If youâre a software engineer, coding engineer, software developer, engineering manager, or tech lead preparing for tech interviews, check out our technical interview checklist,interview questions page, and salary negotiation e-book to get interview-ready!
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What Exactly Is Data Engineering
This question seeks to determine if you can competently describe your field. Offer a basic synopsis and a quick discussion of how data engineers communicate with colleagues.
Data engineering drives information gathering and processing by combining desktop software, mobile apps, cloud-based servers, and physical infrastructure. Effective data engineering necessitates careful planning, robust pipelines, and astute collaborators.
What Happens When Block Scanner Detects A Corrupted Data Block
It is one of the most typical and popular interview questions for data engineers. You should answer this by stating all steps followed by a Block scanner when it finds a corrupted block of data.
Firstly, DataNode reports the corrupted block to NameNode.NameNode makes a replica using an existing model. If the system does not delete the corrupted data block, NameNode creates replicas as per the replication factor.
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What Has Been Your Most Difficult Career Challenge As A Data Engineer
Hiring managers frequently use this question to discover how you handle problems at work. Rather than learning about the specifics of these issues, they are more interested in determining your resilience and how you learn from previous experiences. When responding, use the STAR approach, which entails explaining the scenario, task, action, and conditions from the outcomes.
Last year, I was the primary data engineer for a project that lacked internal support. As a result, my share of the project ran behind schedule, putting me in danger of disciplinary action. After my team missed the first deadline, I approached the project manager and presented alternative solutions. The firm sent more workers to my team on my recommendations, and we finished the project effectively within the original timetable.
What Are Some Of The Important Components Of Hadoop
There are many components involved when working with Hadoop, and some of them are as follows:
- Hadoop Common: This consists of all libraries and utilities that are commonly used by the Hadoop application.
- HDFS: The Hadoop File System is where all the data is stored when working with Hadoop. It provides a distributed file system with very high bandwidth.
- Hadoop YARN: Yet Another Resource Negotiator is used for managing resources in the Hadoop system. Task scheduling can also be performed using YARN.
- Hadoop MapReduce: It is based on techniques that provide user access to large-scale data processing.
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