Question 1: Define Null Resource In Terraform
Answer: The null resource follows the standard resource lifecycle but takes no additional actions. The trigger argument allows for the specification of a subjective set of values that, if misrepresented, will cause the reserve to be replaced.
The null resources primary application is as a do-nothing container for arbitrary actions performed by a provisioner.
How To Remove A Resource From Terraform State
To remove a resource from your Terraform state, you can use the terraform state rm command.
For example, to remove an Azure Key Vault Secret, run the Terraform state rm command as:
terraform state rm azurerm_key_vault_secret.example
When you remove a resource from your Terraform state, it doesn’t destroy the resource. The command only removes the resource from your Terraform state.
What Are The Prime Reasons To Choose Terraform For Devops
Terraform improves the quality, consistency, and efficiency of Cloud and on-premises Infrastructure by eliminating human errors. Using Terraform, you can easily learn and use HCL, a language similar to JSON. Terraform can be used with multiple cloud platforms simultaneously, unlike other IAC tools provided by cloud providers, such as Cloud formation for AWS. Thus, multiple IAC tools do not need to be learned, and collaboration is enhanced.
PS: The state locking feature in Terraform is very important. This feature prevents the state file from becoming corrupt during a run and ensures no changes are made. All Terraform Backends do not support state locking. When this feature is required, you should choose the right backend.
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Question 1: What Are The Key Features Of Terraform
Answer: Following are the key features of Terraform:
- Infrastructure as Code: Terraforms high-level configuration language is used to define your infrastructure in human-readable declarative configuration files.
- You may now create an editable, shareable, and reusable blueprint.
- Terraform generates an execution plan that specifies what it will do and asks for your approval before making any infrastructure alterations. You can assess the modifications before Terraform creates, updates, or destroys infrastructure.
- Terraform creates a resource graph while simultaneously developing or altering non-dependent resources. Terraform can now build resources as quickly as possible while also giving you more information about your infrastructure.
- Terraforms the automation of change allows you to apply complex changesets to your infrastructure with little to no human interaction. Terraform recognises
What Are The Different Degrees Of Sentinel Policing
There are three degrees of enforcement in Sentinel: advisory, soft mandatory, and hard obligatory.
- Advisory – You’ve been logged in, but you’re free to leave. When a user initiates a plan that violates the rules, an advisory is sent.
- Soft Mandatory – Unless an override is stated, the policy must pass. Overrides are only available to administrators.
- Hard Mandatory – The policy must pass regardless of the circumstances. Unless it is abolished, this policy cannot be overridden. In Terraform, this is the default enforcement level.
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Top Terraform Interview Questions And Answers
10/Nov/2021 | 8 minutes to read
Here is a List of essential Terraform Interview Questions and Answers for Freshers and mid level of Experienced Professionals. All answers for these Terraform questions are explained in a simple and easiest way. These basic, advanced and latest Terraform questions will help you to clear your next Job interview.
What Are Some Ways To Apply The Dry Principle In Terraform
One of the ways to apply the DRY principle in Terraform is to use modules. Modules allow you to create reusable components for your infrastructure. This way, you don’t have to write the same configuration files repeatedly.
Another way to apply the DRY principle is to use variables. Variables allow you to parameterize your configurations, so that you can reuse the same configuration files with different values.
Finally, you can use Terraform’s built-in functions to create reusable snippets of code. For example, the “list” function can create a list of resources, which can then be iterated over using the “for” loop.
If the list of environments or regions that you’re deploying to grows large, consider using a CSV file that you can import into Terraform using the “csvdecode” function, as suggested in this presentation.
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What Is A Resource Graph
Terraform can produce a visual representation of an applications infrastructure called a Resource Graph. The Resource Graph is a dependency graph showing how different objects in the applications configuration relate to each other. Terraforms Resource graph can create execution plans, refresh states, and more. This is an important tool for understanding and modifying the resources in an application using Terraform.
How Would You Split Data Into Hadoop
Splits are created with the help of the InputFormat. Once the splits are created, the number of mappers is decided based on the total number of splits. The splits are created according to the programming logic defined within the getSplits method of InputFormat, and it is not bound to the HDFS block size.
The split size is calculated according to the following formula.
Split size = input file size/ number of map tasks
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What Is Terraform Core And How Does It Work Tell Us About Some Of Its Essential Tasks
Terraform Core is a statically compiled binary written in the Go programming language. The produced binaries can be used as a starting point for Terraform users.
The major responsibilities are as follows:
- Infrastructure as code functions read and interpolate modules and configuration files.
- Construction of a Resource Graph
- RPC connection between plugins
- Management of the current status of resources
Q26 Can You Tell Me Something About Memcached
Memcached is a Free & open-source, high-performance, distributed memory object caching system.
This is generally used in the management of memory in dynamic web applications by caching the data in RAM. This helps to reduce the frequency of fetching from external sources. This also helps in speeding up the dynamic web applications by alleviating database load.
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What Do You Understand By Terraform Providers
Providers are plugins on that Terraform relies to interact with cloud providers, SaaS providers, and other APIs. The Terraform configurations have to declare which providers they require so that Terraform can install and use them. Some Terraform providers require configuration such as endpoint URLs or cloud regions before using them.
What Are The Different Modes Of Training That Intellipaat Provides
At Intellipaat, you can enroll in either the instructor-led online training or self-paced training. Apart from this, Intellipaat also offers corporate training for organizations to upskill their workforce. All trainers at Intellipaat have 12+ years of relevant industry experience, and they have been actively working as consultants in the same domain, which has made them subject matter experts. Go through the sample videos to check the quality of our trainers.
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Can You Elaborate Mapreduce Job Architecture
First Hadoop programmer submit Mpareduce program to JobClient.Job Client request the JobTracker to get Job id, Job tracker provide JobID, itss in the form of Job_HadoopStartedtime_00001. Its unique ID.Once JobClient receive received Job ID copy the Job resources to File System and submit job to JobTracker. JobTracker initiate Job and schedule the job.Based on configuration, job split the input splits and submit to HDFS. TaskTracker retrive the job resources from HDFS and launch Child JVM. In this Child JVM, run the map and reduce tasks and notify to the Job tracker the job status.
Explain State File Locking In The Context Of Terraform
Terraform’s state file locking method prevents conflicts between numerous users doing the same task by blocking activities on a given state file. When one user unlocks the lock, only the other user has access to that state. Terraform will lock your state for any operations that potentially write state if your backend supports it. This prevents outsiders from gaining access to the lock and corrupting your state. All operations that have the potential to write state are automatically locked. There will be no indication that this is happening. Terraform will not continue if state locking fails. The -lock flag can be used to deactivate state locking for most tasks, although it is not advised. Terraform will send a status message if gaining the lock takes longer than planned. If your backend enables state locking, even if Terraform doesn’t send a message, it still happens.
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Ask A Mixture Of Behavioral Situational Technical And Soft Skill Questions
Each role requires a range of skills, so choose a variety of interview questions when creating your list. Include behavioral, situational, technical, and cognitive questions to understand your applicants abilities.
For example, you may ask technical questions about Terraform Core or situational questions about rollbacks to learn how applicants act in complex situations and whether theyre ready to tackle the challenges they might face in this role.
Terraform Technical Interview Questions
Lastly, make sure you can answer these technical interview questions before your Terraform interview:
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Is This An Exhaustive List Of Questions For Terraform Interview Preparation
Terraform interview mostly consists of questions on DevOps, its tools, and the comparison of Terraform with other tools. The questions listed above give a basic idea of all the concepts that can be covered in the interview. Preparation for the interview requires in-depth knowledge of how Terraform works, its applications, processes, plugins, and cloud computing. However, the above questions will prepare one for understanding the ideas behind most asked. Furthermore, candidates may gain confidence in appearing in interviews if they are aware of the Terraform mock interview questions.
What Could Be The Best Way To Lock Terraform Module Versions
A known and reliable technique of locking Terraform module versions is to use the Terraform module registry as a source. The Terraform configuration file’s version attribute can be used. We’ll need to use ‘?ref’ to describe the versions, branches, and query string because we’re utilizing the Github repository as a source.
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What Is The Meaning Of The Term Heartbeat Which Is Used On Hdfs
The signal which is used in HDFS is known as the heartbeat. This signal is mainly passed between two types of nodes namely data nodes and name nodes. This occurs between the job tracker and the task tracker. It is considered to have a poor heartbeat if the signal doesnt work properly and if some issues arise with the two nodes or the trackers.
What Is Speculative Execution
Hadoop run the process in commodity hardware, so its possible to fail the systems also has low memory. So if system failed, process also failed, its not recommendable.Speculative execution is a process performance optimization technique.Computation/logic distribute to the multiple systems and execute which system execute quickly. By default this value is true. Now even the system crashed, not a problem, framework choose logic from other systems.Eg: logic distributed on A, B, C, D systems, completed within a time.System A, System B, System C, System D systems executed 10 min, 8 mins, 9 mins 12 mins simultaneously. So consider system B and kill remaining system processes, framework take care to kill the other system process.
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How Can You Store Sensitive Data In Terraform
During a Terraform interview, this is one of the most fundamental questions an interviewer may ask. While answering, you can mention the benefits of the technologies like encryption and the utility of tools like Terrahelp.
Example: Terraform requires credentials to interact with the application programming interface of the cloud providers. To protect these sensitive data, I can use the Terrahelp tool, which is a command line and provides encryption for Terraform variables and state files. When I deploy the Terraform, it creates a state file which stores the information in plain text. To maintain the safety of the files, I prefer to use the cloud storage, which offers encryptions.’
What Is Terragrunt And What Are Its Uses
Terragrunt is a thin wrapper that provides extra tools to keep configurations DRY, manage remote state and work with multiple Terraform modules. It is used for:
- Working with multiple AWS accounts
- Executing Terraform commands on multiple modules
- Keeping our CLI flags DRY
- Keeping our remote state configuration DRY
- Keeping our Terraform code DRY
What Is Terraform Configuration File
Terraform configuration files are used to describe the desired state of your infrastructure. The files are written in the HashiCorp Configuration Language , and they usually have a “.tf” extension. The Terraform code in these files is used to provision and manage resources in your infrastructure.
The configuration files can be used to create, update and delete resources. They can also be used to manage dependencies between resources, and to define input and output variables for modules.
Q11 How Will You Approach A Project That Needs To Implement Devops
First, if we want to approach a project that needs DevOps, we need to know a few concepts like :
- Any programming language concerning the project.
- Get an idea of operating systems for management purposes .
- Get an idea about networking and security concepts.
- Get the idea about what DevOps is, what is continuous integration, continuous development, continuous delivery, continuous deployment, monitoring, and its tools used in various phases.
- Now after this interact with other teams and design a roadmap for the process.
- Once all teams get cleared then create a proof of concept and start according to the project plan.
- Now the project is ready to go through the phases of DevOps.Version control, integration, testing, deployment, delivery, and monitoring.
Heres what Shyam Verma, one of our DevOps learners had to say about our DevOps Training course:
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What Are The Key Features Of Terraform
Terraform helps you manage all of your infrastructures as code and construct it as and when needed. Here are its key main features:
- A console that allows users to observe functions
- The ability to translate HCL code into JSON format
- A configuration language that supports interpolation
- A module count that keeps track of the number of modules applied to the infrastructure.
Q15 What Do You Mean By Recipe In Chef
For this answer, I will suggest you to use the above mentioned flow: first define Recipe. A Recipe is a collection of Resources that describes a particular configuration or policy. A Recipe describes everything that is required to configure part of a system. After the definition, explain the functions of Recipes by including the following points:
- Install and configure software components.
- Execute other recipes.
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What Does The Terraform Plan Command Do
The Terraform plan command is used to create an execution plan. Terraform performs a refresh, unless explicitly disabled, and then determines what actions are necessary to achieve the desired state specified in your configuration files.
The terraform plan command is a convenient way to check whether the execution plan for a set of changes matches your expectations, making no changes to real resources or the state.
What Is A Terraform Provider
Terraform is a software application for controlling and informing infrastructure resources such as physical computers, virtual machines , network switches, containers, and others. API interactions that are smart and disclose resources are the responsibility of the provider. Terraform collaborates with a wide range of cloud providers.
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Explain The Command Terraform Fmt In The Context Of Terraform
Terraform configuration files are rewritten using the terraform fmt command in a consistent structure and style. This command uses a subset of the Terraform language style conventions, as well as some small readability tweaks. Other Terraform commands that produce Terraform configuration will produce files that follow the terraform fmt style, therefore following this style in your own files will assure consistency. Because formatting selections are always subjective, you may disagree with terraform fmt’s choices. This command is purposely opinionated and lacks customization options because its primary goal is to promote stylistic consistency throughout Terraform codebases, even though the chosen style will never be everyone’s favourite.
terraform fmt DIR
The following are the flags that are available:
- -list=false – This option doesn’t show files with discrepancies in formatting.
- -write=false – This option prevents the input files from being overwritten.
- -diff – Shows the differences in formatting modifications.
- -check – Verifies that the input is properly formatted. If all input is properly formatted, the exit status will be 0, else it will be non-zero.
- -recursive – Process files from subdirectories as well.
Q12 What Are The Three Main Variables That Affect Recursion And Inheritance In Nagios
According to me the proper format for this answer should be: First name the variables and then a small explanation of each of these variables:
Then give a brief explanation for each of these variables. Name is a placeholder that is used by other objects. Use defines the parent object whose properties should be used. Register can have a value of 0 and 1 . The register value is never inherited.
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How To Nail Your Next Tech Interview
Terraform is an open-source infrastructure as code or IaC tool created by HashiCorp. Terraform helps us build, change, and version cloud and on-prem resources efficiently and safely. We then have a consistent workflow to provision and manage our infrastructure throughout its lifecycle. This article focuses on Terraform interview questions to help you get ready for your interview.
If you are preparing for a tech interview, check out our technical interview checklist, interview questions page, and salary negotiation ebook to get interview-ready! Also, read , , and for specific insights and guidance on Coding interview preparation.
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In this article, weâll cover:
- Terraform Interview Questions and Answers
- Basic Terraform Interview Questions
- FAQs on Terraform Interview Questions