Question: What Is Docker Image
Docker image is the source of Docker container. In other words, Docker images are used to create containers.
Images are created with the build command, and theyll produce a container when started with run.
Images are stored in a Docker registry such as registry.hub.docker.com because they can become quite large, images are designed to be composed of layers of other images, allowing a minimal amount of data to be sent when transferring images over the network.
What Is Azure Devops
Azure DevOps is also known as Microsoft visual studio team services . It is a set of collaborative development tools built for the cloud. VSTS was commonly used as a standalone term, and Azure DevOps is a platform which is made up of a few different products, such as:
- Azure Test Plans
- AWS CodePipeline
Question: What Are Linux Containers
Linux containers, in short, contain applications in a way that keep them isolated from the host system that they run on.
Containers allow a developer to package up an application with all of the parts it needs, such as libraries and other dependencies, and ship it all out as one package.
And they are designed to make it easier to provide a consistent experience as developers and system administrators move code from development environments into production in a fast and replicable way.
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What Do You Find Most Challenging In The Devops Role
This question might be asked to see how well you embrace change and challenges on the job. Use this question as an opportunity to brag a little and use an example that would be difficult for even the most expert DevOps engineers if you can. Moreover, make sure you incorporate how you addressed the challenge and then the resolution that resulted because of the problem. In conclusion, make sure you cover the big picture.
Can You Explain The Infrastructure As Code Concept
As the name indicates, IaC mainly relies on perceiving infrastructure in the same way as any code which is why it is commonly referred to as programmable infrastructure. It simply provides means to define and manage the IT infrastructure by using configuration files.
This concept came into prominence because of the limitations associated with the traditional way of managing the infrastructure. Traditionally, the infrastructure was managed manually and the dedicated people had to set up the servers physically. Only after this step was done, the application would have been deployed. Manual configuration and setup were constantly prone to human errors and inconsistencies.
This also involved increased cost in hiring and managing multiple people ranging from network engineers to hardware technicians to manage the infrastructural tasks. The major problem with the traditional approach was decreased scalability and application availability which impacted the speed of request processing. Manual configurations were also time-consuming and in case the application had a sudden spike in user usage, the administrators would desperately work on keeping the system available for a large load. This would impact the application availability.
IaC solved all the above problems. IaC can be implemented in 2 approaches:
- Imperative approach: This approach gives orders and defines a sequence of instructions that can help the system in reaching the final output.
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What Is Continuous Testing
Continuous Testing is that phase of DevOps which involves the process of running the automated test cases as part of an automated software delivery pipeline with the sole aim of getting immediate feedback regarding the quality and validation of business risks associated with the automated build of code developed by the developers.
Using this phase will help the team to test each build continuously thereby giving the dev teams a chance to get instant feedback on their work and ensuring that these problems dont arrive in the later stages of SDLC cycle.
Doing this would drastically speed up the workflow followed by the developer to develop the project due to the lack of manual intervention steps to rebuild the project and run the automated test cases every time the changes are made.
Q30 What Are The Ways To Create Custom Docker Images
Answer: Docker images can be created by two ways broadly
Dockerfile: Most used method , where base image can be specified and the files can be copied into the image and installation and configuration can be done using declarative file which can be given to Docker build command to produce new docker image.
Docker commit: Where the Docker image is pinned up as a Docker container and every command execute inside a container forms a Read-only layer and after every changes is Done can use docker commit < container-iD> to save as a image, although this method is not suitable for CI/CD pipelines , as it requires manual intervention.
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Question: What Is Gradle Build Task
Gradle Build Tasks is made up of one or more projects and a project represents what is been done with Gradle.
Some key of features of Gradle Build Tasks are:
Q8 Describe The Most Significant Gain You Made From Automating A Process Through Puppet
For this answer, I will suggest you to explain you past experience with Puppet. you can refer the below example:I automated the configuration and deployment of Linux and Windows machines using Puppet. In addition to shortening the processing time from one week to 10 minutes, I used the roles and profiles pattern and documented the purpose of each module in README to ensure that others could update the module using Git. The modules I wrote are still being used, but theyve been improved by my teammates and members of the community
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Top 10 Azure Devops Interview Questions To Prepare For
The digital landscape is and has been evolving constantly, giving us new focuses and ways of doing things. And among the advancements, perhaps one of the most notable and useful is that which deviates from conventional development and IT operations more widely known as DevOps.
The demand for cloud computing architecture has significantly risen over the years. Businesses are beginning to realize the benefits of not having to rely on an IT department to implement important updates and share resources, particularly following the chaos the COVID-19 pandemic brought around the globe. And, with the demand for cloud platforms like Microsoft Azure seemingly here for the foreseeable, we are now seeing an influx of job openings for cloud professionals who can perform these digital transformations and migrations, particularly in the DevOps space. This skillset is in high demand, and as a result, these roles tend to be very lucrative and set you up for a great, prosperous career.
So, if youve been applying for your dream Azure job and have bagged yourself an interview, youll want to make sure you do enough prep to perform at your best and land yourself the role. In this blog, well be sharing our top tips on how to prepare for a DevOps interview, including the top 10 interview questions and how you should answer them.
Q4 Explain How You Can Move Or Copy Jenkins From One Server To Another
I will approach this task by copying the jobs directory from the old server to the new one. There are multiple ways to do that I have mentioned them below: You can:
- Move a job from one installation of Jenkins to another by simply copying the corresponding job directory.
- Make a copy of an existing job by making a clone of a job directory by a different name.
- Rename an existing job by renaming a directory. Note that if you change a job name you will need to change any other job that tries to call the renamed job.
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Tell Me About A Few Scripts Youve Developed In The Past That Have Been Critical To Your Devops Success
Scripting is one of those critical skills for DevOps engineers. Im sure youve heard that old saying, Life would be so much easier if there were two of me. Scripting is your cloning machine. Whether it’s Python, Powershell, or some other flavor, scripting is a powerful tool to help you do more with less. A DevOps engineer doesnt have to be a full fledged programmer, but they do need to know how to leverage scripting to make their job easier.
Why Are Ssl Certificates Used In Chef
- SSL certificates are used between the Chef server and the client to ensure that each node has access to the right data.
- Every node has a private and public key pair. The public key is stored at the Chef server.
- When an SSL certificate is sent to the server, it will contain the private key of the node.
- The server compares this against the public key in order to identify the node and give the node access to the required data.
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Q11tell Us How You Have Used Docker In Your Past Position
Explain how you have used Docker to help rapid deployment. Explain how you have scripted Docker and used Docker with other tools like Puppet, Chef or Jenkins. If you have no past practical experience in Docker and have past experience with other tools in similar space, be honest and explain the same. In this case, it makes sense if you can compare other tools to Docker in terms of functionality.
Q3 What Is The Difference Between An Asset And A Configuration Item
According to me, you should first explain Asset. It has a financial value along with a depreciation rate attached to it. IT assets are just a sub-set of it. Anything and everything that has a cost and the organization uses it for its asset value calculation and related benefits in tax calculation falls under Asset Management, and such item is called an asset.Configuration Item on the other hand may or may not have financial values assigned to it. It will not have any depreciation linked to it. Thus, its life would not be dependent on its financial value but will depend on the time till that item becomes obsolete for the organization.
Now you can give an example that can showcase the similarity and differences between both:1) Similarity:Server It is both an asset as well as a CI.2) Difference:Building It is an asset but not a CI.Document It is a CI but not an asset
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Question: What Is Git
Git is a version control system for tracking changes in computer files and coordinating work on those files among multiple people.
It is primarily used for source code management in software development but it can be used to keep track of changes in any set of files.
As a distributed revision control system it is aimed at speed, data integrity,and support for distributed, non-linear workflows.
Q5 Which Among Puppet Chef Saltstack And Ansible Is The Best Configuration Management Tool Why
This depends on the organizations need so mention few points on all those tools:Puppet is the oldest and most mature CM tool. Puppet is a Ruby-based Configuration Management tool, but while it has some free features, much of what makes Puppet great is only available in the paid version. Organizations that dont need a lot of extras will find Puppet useful, but those needing more customization will probably need to upgrade to the paid version.Chef is written in Ruby, so it can be customized by those who know the language. It also includes free features, plus it can be upgraded from open source to enterprise-level if necessary. On top of that, its a very flexible product.Ansible is a very secure option since it uses Secure Shell. Its a simple tool to use, but it does offer a number of other services in addition to configuration management. Its very easy to learn, so its perfect for those who dont have a dedicated IT staff but still need a configuration management tool.SaltStack is python based open source CM tool made for larger businesses, but its learning curve is fairly low.
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Why Do Devops Businesses Strive For Continuous Integration
A full understanding of continuous integration includes understanding why businesses seek to accomplish it. When constructing this answer, think about the benefits that using continuous integration has offered you and list them.
Example:”Continuous integration helps developers code faster. That’s because teams work on smaller sections of a project, usually a feature. Then, continuous integration automates the otherwise manual process of coding all the features together into a comprehensive service. Development teams can focus on one thing, complete it quickly and leave the tedious task of integration to automation.”
Q6 What Do You Mean By Passive Check In Nagios
According to me, the answer should start by explaining Passive checks. They are initiated and performed by external applications/processes and the Passive check results are submitted to Nagios for processing.Then explain the need for passive checks. They are useful for monitoring services that are Asynchronous in nature and cannot be monitored effectively by polling their status on a regularly scheduled basis. They can also be used for monitoring services that are Located behind a firewall and cannot be checked actively from the monitoring host.
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Q148 Is It Possible To Share A Single Instance Of A Memcache Between Multiple Projects
Answer: Yes, it is possible to share a single instance of Memcache between multiple projects. You can run Memcache on more than one server because it is a memory store space. You can also configure your client to speak to a particular set of case. So, you can run two different Memcache processes on the same host independently.
Q: What Are Different Types Of Cloud Ans:
Based on a cloud location, we can classify cloud as:
- Public: A public cloud is where users don’t need to purchase hardware, software, or supporting infrastructure, which is owned and managed by the providers.
- Private: A private cloud is pretty much same as public cloud and has similar advantages, but is provisioned for a single organization over private infrastructure.
- Hybrid: As name suggests hybrid cloud is a type of cloud computing where private/on-premises cloud infrastructure integrates with public cloud services..
- IaaS: Infrastructure-as-a-Service
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Q16 What Is The Difference Between Git Merge And Git Rebase
Here, both are merging mechanisms but the difference between the Git Merge and Git Rebase is, in Git Merge logs will be showing the complete history of commits.
However, when one does Git Rebase, the logs are rearranged. The rearrangement is done to make the logs look linear and simple to understand. This is also a drawback since other team members will not understand how the different commits were merged into one another.
What Are Puppet Manifests
Every Puppet Node or Puppet Agent has got its configuration details in Puppet Master, written in the native Puppet language. These details are written in a language that Puppet can understand and are termed as Puppet Manifests. These manifests are composed of Puppet codes, and their filenames use the .pp extension.
For instance, we can write a manifest in Puppet Master that creates a file and installs Apache on all Puppet Agents or slaves that are connected to the Puppet Master.
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Question: What Is Swap Space
Swap space is the amount of physical memory that is allocated for use by Linux to hold some concurrent running programs temporarily.
This condition usually occurs when Ram does not have enough memory to support all concurrent running programs.
This memory management involves the swapping of memory to and from physical storage.
Q150 How Can You Minimize The Memcached Server Outages
- If you write the code to minimize cache stampedes then it will leave a minimal impact
- Another way is to bring up an instance of Memcached on a new machine using the lost machines IP address
- The code is another option to minimize server outages as it gives you the liberty to change the Memcached server list with minimal work
- Setting timeout value is another option that some Memcached clients implement for Memcached server outage. When your Memcached server goes down, the client will keep trying to send a request till the time-out limit is reached
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What Are Driverclose And Driverquit In Webdriver
These are two different methods used to close the browser session in Selenium WebDriver:
- driver.close – This is used to close the current browser window on which the focus is set. In this case, there is only one browser open.
- driver.quit – It closes all the browser windows and ends the WebDriver session using the driver.dispose method.
Question: How To Rebase Master In Git
Rebasing is the process of moving a branch to a new base commit. The golden rule of git rebase is to never use it on public branches.
The only way to synchronize the two master branches is to merge them back together, resulting in an extra merge commit and two sets of commits that contain the same changes.
Q9 Which Open Source Or Community Tools Do You Use To Make Puppet More Powerful
Over here, you need to mention the tools and how you have used those tools to make Puppet more powerful. Below is one example for your reference:Changes and requests are ticketed through Jira and we manage requests through an internal process. Then, we use Git and Puppets Code Manager app to manage Puppet code in accordance with best practices. Additionally, we run all of our Puppet changes through our continuous integration pipeline in Jenkins using the beaker testing framework.