What Is The Significance Of Continuous Testing In Devops
The continuous testing process is done in DevOps to avoid testing the entire code at a time. In traditional SDLC, we will test the code after the whole code is developed but in DevOps, we will test instantly every change made in the code. This kind of testing avoids delays in the product release, and it will also help to achieve better quality in the product.
Can You Explain The Shift Left To Reduce Failure Concept In Devops
In order to understand what this means, we first need to know how the traditional SDLC cycle works. In the traditional cycle, there are 2 main sides –
- The left side of the cycle consists of the planning, design, and development phase
- The right side of the cycle includes stress testing, production staging, and user acceptance.
In DevOps, shifting left simply means taking up as many tasks that usually take place at the end of the application development process as possible into the earlier stages of application development. From the below graph, we can see that if the shift left operations are followed, the chances of errors faced during the later stages of application development would greatly reduce as it would have been identified and solved in the earlier stages itself.
The most popular ways of accomplishing shift left in DevOps is to:
- Work side by side with the development team while creating the deployment and test case automation. This is the first and the obvious step in achieving shift left. This is done because of the well-known fact that the failures that get notices in the production environment are not seen earlier quite often. These failures can be linked directly to:
- Different deployment procedures used by the development team while developing their features.
- Production deployment procedures sometimes tend to be way different than the development procedure. There can be differences in tooling and sometimes the process might also be manual.
Q: What Is Containers Orchestration In Kubernetes Ans:
While containers are effective at the heavy lifting while instantiating an image or application component on a single hosting environment, most modern applications are comprised of many components that span multiple hosts that in turn could be in various geographic regions. This is where orchestration and management become a question.
- Applications generally are built up of individually containerized components/micro services that must be managed for the application to perform as expected.
- Container orchestration is the process of managing or organizing multiple containers in this fashion. For example: Docker Swarm, Kubernetes, Mesos and Marathon
- Kubernetes is an open source platform initially developed by engineers at Google, which automates container operations. It allows you to build application services that span multiple containers, schedule those containers across a cluster, scale those containers, and manage the health of those containers over time. Kubernetes handles container deployments and orchestration as a cluster manager by using a declarative model that enables the user to define their application needs.
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Tell Me About A System You Had To Create From The Ground Up
DevOps professionals should be excellent problem solvers, and this question helps to tease out those skills, says Phil Kalm, senior DevOps engineer for SaltStack.
DevOps isnt about one thing or technology. It encompasses many, says Kalm. Finding out about the candidates ability to logically think through a project and identify prerequisites shows the discipline a good DevOps engineer needs.
When candidates answer this question, Kalm looks for depth and breadth of experience along with solid troubleshooting skills. CI/CD platforms rise and fall in popularity with increasing regularity, he notes. Showing the mental capabilities to identify, learn, engineer, and grow a technological ecosystem is a fundamental trait.
What Are Containers In Devops And Which Container Platforms Does Devops Support
This is quite a general question asked within a DevOps interview, so its certainly worth getting to grips with. The role of containers is to provide a single place to store software code, configurations, and dependencies. If youre looking to build on your answer further, you could mention how its possible for multiple containers to run simultaneously on a single machine. Because of the important role they play, containers can help in more efficient and reliable deployments.
Azure DevOps provides container support via a few platforms including Docker and Asp.Net, as well as Kubernetes Services and more. So, be sure to mention at least a few of these to complete the question.
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Explain The Implementation Of Continuous Testing In Devops
- In DevOps continuous testing starts in the development phase, as the developer tests the functionality of the code by using tools like selenium.
- Tools like GitHub store these tests and versions along with the software code. DevOps team uses these tests to perform testing on the new build of the software code.
- when the code reaches pre-production, the professional QA team uses these tests by making some changes to the test specifications.
- the operations team can reuse these tests for user acceptance testing and for resolving the post-delivery issues.
Q: What Is In Openshift Container Platform
Let’s understand what OpenShift Container platform is
- RedHat OpenShift Container Platform is a PAAS offering from RedHat, which was formally known as OpenShift Enterprises
- It is a supported distribution of Kubernetes using Docker containers and DevOps tools for accelerated application development.
- Open Shift also allows you to have highly available, self-healing, and auto-scaling applications without any of the manual setup that would typically need to be done in a traditional environment whether they’re onpremise or in the public cloud.
- OpenShift includes a full complement of open source programming languages giving polyglot choice to developers.
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If A Dockercontainers Inner Process Isnt Working According To Assumptions What Will Youdo To Stop It
We can start by trying to stop the container using dockerstop command, if it is taking too long we can go ahead make use of the dockerkill command.
Eg. docker stopmycontainer & docker kill mycontainer
Create a dockercontainer that runs apache server with a sample html code in an ubuntu dockercontainer.
First we will create our sample html file, like so:
$ nano index.hmtl
< h1> Hope you allhave a wonderful day< /h1>
The we will go ahead and create our dockerfile, like so:
$ nano dockerfile
RUN apt update& & apt install apache2 y
Then we will build our dockerfile with the followingcommand:
$ sudo docker build t fun-image .
Then we will run the container using this command:
$ sudo docker run it d name mycontainer fun-image
What Is Infrastructureconfiguration Which Tools Are Useful For Infrastructureconfiguration
In todays fast and competitive market, many companies demand a faster deployment process and Infrastructure Configuration, so treating Infrastructure as software and manage the processes such as version control, continuous integration, deployment and automated testing will make infrastructure changes more rapidly and reliably.
Following are the most popular tools for Infrastructure Configuration.
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Explain The Concept Of Branching In Git
Suppose you are working on an application, and you want to add a new feature to the app. You can create a new branch and build the new feature on that branch.
- The circles on the branch represent various commits made on the branch
- After you are done with all the changes, you can merge it with the master branch
Why You Must Hire A Remote Devops Engineer
A few years ago, development engineers and operations engineers were separate roles that had different responsibilities. Development engineers were responsible for coding and testing, while operations engineers were focused on the infrastructure configuration tasks and delivery. Operations engineers had little to no knowledge of software development.
This gap between the two departments of development and operations was filled by the appearance of DevOps engineers.
Some of the main benefits of hiring a DevOps engineer for you business are:
- Your project will see seamless execution and timely delivery.
- During a project, DevOps engineers provide support to ensure that the infrastructure is up-to-date and has protection against security breaches. This means that you will see high quality output in your project.
- You can expect faster resolution to problems and simplified management of processes and workflow.
Why opt for a remote DevOps engineer?
- The new normal is all about working remotely. Most businesses are now working on a fully remote model or a hybrid work model.
- If youre a business that is moving with the times and evolving, hiring a remote DevOps makes sense.
- DevOps is all about coordination and collaboration that enables developers, QA teams and operations to work together as a team. A remote DevOps engineer has become even more important as remote work requires bridges to combat communication gaps that may arise.
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Q7 In Git How Do You Revert A Commit That Has Already Been Pushed And Made Public
There can be two answers to this question so make sure that you include both because any of the below options can be used depending on the situation:
- Remove or fix the bad file in a new commit and push it to the remote repository. This is the most natural way to fix an error. Once you have made necessary changes to the file, commit it to the remote repository for that I will usegit commit -m commit message
- Create a new commit that undoes all changes that were made in the bad commit.to do this I will use a commandgit revert < name of bad commit>
Q16 How Does Aws Contribute To Devops
AWS is one of the famous cloud providers. In AWS DevOps is provided with some benefits:
- Flexible Resources: AWS provides all the DevOps resources which are flexible to use.
- Scaling: we can create several instances on AWS with a lot of storage and computation power.
- Automation: Automation is provided by AWS like CI/CD
- Security: AWS provides security when we create an instance like IAM
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Top 10 Azure Devops Interview Questions To Prepare For
The digital landscape is and has been evolving constantly, giving us new focuses and ways of doing things. And among the advancements, perhaps one of the most notable and useful is that which deviates from conventional development and IT operations more widely known as DevOps.
The demand for cloud computing architecture has significantly risen over the years. Businesses are beginning to realize the benefits of not having to rely on an IT department to implement important updates and share resources, particularly following the chaos the COVID-19 pandemic brought around the globe. And, with the demand for cloud platforms like Microsoft Azure seemingly here for the foreseeable, we are now seeing an influx of job openings for cloud professionals who can perform these digital transformations and migrations, particularly in the DevOps space. This skillset is in high demand, and as a result, these roles tend to be very lucrative and set you up for a great, prosperous career.
So, if youve been applying for your dream Azure job and have bagged yourself an interview, youll want to make sure you do enough prep to perform at your best and land yourself the role. In this blog, well be sharing our top tips on how to prepare for a DevOps interview, including the top 10 interview questions and how you should answer them.
Mention Some Benefits Of Memcached
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How Does Aws Help Devops
AWS is a popular cloud provider. It assists DevOps by offering the following benefits:.
Scaling: Plenty of machines can be set up on AWS by using computation power and unlimited storage.
AWS presents ready-to-use flexible resources.
With various services presented by AWS, a myriad of tasks can be automated.
AWS is safe to implement and through its diverse security options offered under the Identity and Access Management , certainly, the application deployments and builds can be safeguarded.
What Is Git Stash
A developer working with a current branch wants to switch to another branch to work on something else, but the developer doesn’t want to commit changes to your unfinished work. The solution to this issue is Git stash. Git stash takes your modified tracked files and saves them on a stack of unfinished changes that you can reapply at any time.
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What Would You Check If A Linux
If a Linux-build-server suddenly starts getting slow, then you should troubleshoot as follows.
Explain Howkubernetes Benefits Us In Software Deployment
- Increases productivity by reducing complexity inthe software deployment environment.
- Increases the overall stability of a software
- Its very cheap to implement
- Its very useful for very large projects with alot of moving parts.
- Allows you to automate software deploymentprocess.
- Allows you to easily update your software.
- Allows you to easily scale your software andmanage it in general.
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How Does Nagios Help In The Continuous Monitoring Of Systems Applications And Services
Nagios enables server monitoring and the ability to check if they are sufficiently utilized or if any task failures need to be addressed.
- Verifies the status of the servers and services
- Inspects the health of your infrastructure
- Checks if applications are working correctly and web servers are reachable
How Does Continuous Monitoring Help You Maintain The Entire Architecture Of The System
Continuous monitoring in DevOps is a process of detecting, identifying, and reporting any faults or threats in the entire infrastructure of the system.
- Ensures that all services, applications, and resources are running on the servers properly.
- Monitors the status of servers and determines if applications are working correctly or not.
- Enables continuous audit, transaction inspection, and controlled monitoring.
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Q16 What Is The Difference Between Git Merge And Git Rebase
Here, both are merging mechanisms but the difference between the Git Merge and Git Rebase is, in Git Merge logs will be showing the complete history of commits.
However, when one does Git Rebase, the logs are rearranged. The rearrangement is done to make the logs look linear and simple to understand. This is also a drawback since other team members will not understand how the different commits were merged into one another.
Interview Questions About Configuration Management
Configuration management is also a key topic in DevOps. Environments and applications tend to get complex as time goes by. And for that reason, it becomes challenging to know the current status of the environment. Which application version is installed? Which database version is being used? Is the application using the proper environment configuration? For example, is the application running in a prod environment pointing to dev resources or vice-versa? So youâll also get some questions in the interview like the following:
Question: What is configuration management? Why is it needed?
Preparation: Iâd take a look at Continuous Deliveryâs post on the subject.
Question: What are the tools you could use for configuration management?
Preparation: Itâs vital that you know which tools are better for these type of jobs. Just because you can use bash scripting doesnât mean that itâs the best option. Youâll need to explain tools like Chef, Ansible, and Puppet. Itâs even better if you have real experience with at least one of these three tools. Depending on the company, they might also ask specific questions about Ansible or Chef.
Question: Where does configuration management fit into the deployment pipeline?
Question: How does configuration management differ from provisioning infrastructure?
Preparation: Thereâs a good post from ThoughtWorks on this.
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Describe The Flow Of The Devops Pipeline
Generally, a pipeline is a set of automated processes that are defined and being followed by the software engineering team. Essentially, DevOps pipeline permits the DevOps software developers and DevOps engineers to competently and consistently compile, create and deploy the software code into production environments.
The corresponding flow is as below:
Developer focus on accomplishing functionality.
The developer sets up his code for the test environment.
Testers work on authenticating the feature. The business team can arbitrate and give feedback.
Developers focus on the test as well as business feedback in a constant collaboration manner.
The code is finally handed over the production and authenticated again
What Is Pair Programming
Pair programming is an engineering practice where two programmers work on the same system, same design, and same code. They follow the rules of Extreme Programming. Here, one programmer is termed as driver while the other acts as observer which continuously monitors the project progress to identify any further problems.
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What Are The Antipatterns Of Devops
A pattern is the one that is most frequently followed by huge masses of entities. When a pattern is accepted by an organization by considering that it is being used by others without determining the requirements of the organization then it turns out to be an anti-pattern. Likewise, various myths around DevOps can lead to antipatterns, they are as below:
DevOps is not a culture but a process.
DevOps is nothing but an Agile approach.
There must be a distinct DevOps group.
DevOps resolves every problem.
DevOps associates to developers operating a production environment.
DevOps follows Development-driven management
DevOps does not excessively focus on development.
DevOps culture cannot be implemented because of the absence of the right set of people.