Sunday, January 29, 2023

Ds And Algo Interview Questions

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Dream MNC DS and Algorithm Interview Questions Part 1

Data rules businesses all around the world. The more data-driven you are, the better off your company will be. Using data insights, you can make meaningful decisions, create strategies, and help your organization accomplish its goals faster. Enrolling in this comprehensive Data Science curriculum will undoubtedly provide you with a competitive advantage.

What Are The Essential Functions And Responsibilities Of A Data Scientist

A Data Scientist identifies the business issues that need to be answered and then develops and tests new algorithms for quicker and more accurate data analytics utilizing a range of technologies such as Tableau, Python, Hive, and others. A Data Scientist also collects, integrates, and analyses data to acquire insights and reduce data issues so that strategies and prediction models may be developed.

Explain Stack Along With Its Applications

A stack is a data structure in which elements are placed one on top of the other and additions and deletions can occur only at the top. Stacks can be used in the following applications:

  • A stack can be used in applications where users are enabled to backtrack on previous operations by one step or move forward with a new operation.
  • The process of reversing the characters in a string can be completed by placing them in a stack and using the pop operation.

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Give A Basic Algorithm For Searching A Binary Search Tree

1.if the tree is empty, then the target is not in the tree, end search2. if the tree is not empty, the target is in the tree3. check if the target is in the root item4. if a target is not in the root item, check if a target is smaller than the roots value5. if a target is smaller than the roots value, search the left subtree6. else, search the right subtree

What Is A Doubly

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It is a complex type of a linked list in which a node has two links, one that connects to the next node in the sequence and another that connects to the previous node. This allows traversal across the data elements in both directions.

Examples include:

  • A music playlist with next and previous navigation buttons
  • The browser cache with BACK-FORWARD visited pages
  • The undo and redo functionality on a browser, where you can reverse the node to get to the previous page

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Explain What Is Data Structure

The data structure is nothing but an entity where the data is perfectly aligned and can be manipulated as per the requirement. When we deal with data structure it is not just about one table of data but it is about different data sets and how well they are aligned with each other. Overall, it helps the data to be organized.

How Does The Selection Sort Work

Selection sort works by repeatedly picking the smallest number in ascending order from the list and placing it at the beginning. This process is repeated moving toward the end of the list or sorted subarray.

Scan all items and find the smallest. Switch over the position as the first item. Repeat the selection sort on the remaining N-1 items. We always iterate forward and swap with the smallest element .

Time complexity: best case O worst O

Space complexity: worst O

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Are Data Structures Always Static

No, Data Structures can be both dynamic and static, depending on the way memory allocation works for them. For example, Arrays are static data structures since an entire lot of contiguous memory is allocated to them when they are defined. On the other hand, Linked Lists are dynamic Data Structures as they dont have any fixed size and the number of nodes can increase depending on the programmers requirements.

Explain Binary Search Tree

Dream MNC DS and Algorithm Interview Questions Part 2

A binary search tree stores data in such a way that they can be retrieved very efficiently. The left subtree contains nodes whose keys are less than the nodes key value, while the right subtree contains nodes whose keys are greater than or equal to the nodes key value. Moreover, both subtrees are also binary search trees.

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Business Intelligence vs Data Science: What are the differences?
  • How are 2D array elements stored in the memory?
  • The elements of a 2-D array can be stored in the memory in either of the two ways:

    • Row-Major: In this method, first all the rows of the array are contiguously stored in the memory. First, the 1st row is stored completely, then the 2nd row, and so on till the last one.
    • Column-Major: In this, all the columns of the array are continuously stored in the memory. First, the 1st column is stored completely, then the 2nd column, and so on.
  • Define Linked List Data Structure.
  • Linked Lists are collections of nodes which are randomly stored objects. Each node has two internal elements a Data field and a Link field. The Data field holds the value that the particular node has, while the Link field has a pointer to the next node that this one is linked to. Depending on the situation, a Linked List can be considered both as a linear as well as a non-linear Data Structure.

  • In what ways are Linked Lists better than arrays?
  • Linked Lists are better than arrays in the following ways:

  • In C programming language, which pointer would you use to implement a heterogeneous linked list?
  • Heterogeneous linked lists, as the name suggests, hold different data types. As a result, it is not possible to use ordinary pointers here. So, Void pointers are normally used in such a scenario since they are capable of pointing to any type of value.

  • What is a Doubly Linked List?
    • Previous pointer

    How Do Signed And Unsigned Numbers Affect Memory

    In the case of signed numbers, the first bit is used to indicate whether positive or negative, which leaves you with one bit short. With unsigned numbers, you have all bits available for that number. The effect is best seen in the number range (an unsigned 8-bit number has a range 0-255, while the 8-bit signed number has a range -128 to +127.

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    Elaborate On Different Types Of Linked List Data Structures

    Following are different types of linked lists:

    1. Singly Linked List: A singly linked list is a data structure that is used to store multiple items. The items are linked together using the key. The key is used to identify the item and is usually a unique identifier. In a singly linked list, each item is stored in a separate node. The node can be a single object or it can be a collection of objects. When an item is added to the list, the node is updated and the new item is added to the end of the list. When an item is removed from the list, the node that contains the removed item is deleted and its place is taken by another node. The key of a singly linked list can be any type of data structure that can be used to identify an object. For example, it could be an integer, a string, or even another singly linked list. Singly-linked lists are useful for storing many different types of data. For example, they are commonly used to store lists of items such as grocery lists or patient records. They are also useful for storing data that is time sensitive such as stock market prices or flight schedules.

    3. Circular Linked List: A circular linked list is a unidirectional linked list where each node points to its next node and the last node points back to the first node, which makes it circular.

    What Is The Result Of 10+20+30 In Javascript

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    This interview question tests your knowledge of JavaScript data primitives, the data types that can be composed into different data structures in Python. In this case, its a mix between string and numbers data types. Knowing that the result will be 102030 rather than 60 means that you understand that when a string type is invoked with the + operator in JavaScript, the automatic behavior is to turn it into a concatenation operator.

    Only by ensuring that everything that interacts with the + operator is a number or BigInt data type can you ensure that a desired behavior of addition happens.

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    What Is The For

    The for-in loop is a fundamental part of iterating through data structures. You should be able to describe its syntax to interviewers without hesitation.

    This is the case for-in loop implementation in JavaScript. You would loop through an array by replacing the object name with the array name, and then place the piece of iterative code inside the block.

    Talk Through The Brute

    After sufficiently defining the scope and intention of the problem, start by talking through the simplest brute-force solution you can think of with your interviewer.

    Candidates often skip talking through the brute-force solution because they assume the brute-force solution is too obvious or not what the interviewer wants. This is a strategic mistake. You always want to give a solution to the problem, even if it takes exponential time. Its important not to overthink the problem and try to find the most optimal solution right away.

    The worst outcome in a technical interview is to not write any code, and the easiest way to end up in that position is to overcomplicate the problem early in the interview.

    Instead, talk through a solution youre confident will work and let your interviewer know about the concessions youve made. You might think that if you present an initial suboptimal solution that youll never get hired, but this isnt true. Communication is important here. You can score points with your interviewer by explaining the time and space complexity of your naive or brute-force solution and by clarifying why its suboptimal youll have the chance to improve it later.

    A good developer knows when theyre making concessions and will write it down to fix later. Like in your day-to-day job, shipping nothing is worse than iterative improvements. Remember that a working brute force solution is always better than a half-baked more optimal one.

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    What Is A Binary Search When Is It Best Used

    A binary search is an algorithm that starts with searching from the middle element. If the middle element is not the target element then it checks if it should search the lower half or the higher half. The process continues until the target element is found.

    The binary search works best when applied to a list with sorted or ordered elements.

    What Is A Priority Queue What Are The Applications For Priority Queue

    Data Structure Interview Questions and Answers 2022 | DS Algo Tutorial | SCALER

    Priority Queue is an abstract data type that is similar to a queue in that each element is assigned a priority value. The order in which elements in a priority queue are served is determined by their priority . If the elements have the same priority, they are served in the order they appear in the queue.

    Following are some real-time applications for priority queue:

    • Used in graph algorithms like Dijkstra, Prims Minimum spanning tree etc.
    • Huffman code for data compression
    • Finding Kth Largest/Smallest element

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    How Does A Selection Sort Work For An Array

    The selection sort is a fairly intuitive sorting algorithm, though not necessarily efficient. In this process, the smallest element is first located and switched with the element at subscript zero, thereby placing the smallest element in the first position.

    The smallest element remaining in the subarray is then located next to subscripts 1 through n-1 and switched with the element at subscript 1, thereby placing the second smallest element in the second position. The steps are repeated in the same manner till the last element.

    Explain Whether A Linked List Is Considered As A Linear Or Non

    This is purely determined on the requirement basis, a linked list can be considered as a linear data structure or a non-linear data structure. For example: If the linked list is used on storage, then the linked list is considered as a nonlinear data structure.

    If linked lists are used against access strategies then they are considered as a linear data structure.

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    What Is Avl Tree Data Structure Its Operations And Its Rotations What Are The Applications For Avl Trees

    AVL trees are height balancing binary search trees named after their inventors Adelson, Velski, and Landis. The AVL tree compares the heights of the left and right subtrees and ensures that the difference is less than one. This distinction is known as the Balance Factor.

    BalanceFactor = height height

    We can perform the following two operations on AVL tree:

    • Insertion: Insertion in an AVL tree is done in the same way that it is done in a binary search tree. However, it may cause a violation in the AVL tree property, requiring the tree to be balanced. Rotations can be used to balance the tree.
    • Deletion: Deletion can also be performed in the same manner as in a binary search tree. Because deletion can disrupt the tree’s balance, various types of rotations are used to rebalance it.

    An AVL tree can balance itself by performing the four rotations listed below:

    • Left rotation: When a node is inserted into the right subtree of the right subtree and the tree becomes unbalanced, we perform a single left rotation.
    • Right rotation: If a node is inserted in the left subtree of the left subtree, the AVL tree may become unbalanced. The tree then requires right rotation.
    • Left-Right rotation: The RR rotation is performed first on the subtree, followed by the LL rotation on the entire tree.
    • Right-Left rotation: The LL rotation is performed first on the subtree, followed by the RR rotation on the entire tree.

    Following are some real-time applications for AVL tree data structure:

    How Are The Elements Of A 2d Array Are Stored In The Memory

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    There are two techniques by using which, the elements of a 2D array can be stored in the memory.

    • Row-Major Order: In row-major ordering, all the rows of the 2D array are stored into the memory contiguously. First, the 1st row of the array is stored into the memory completely, then the 2nd row of the array is stored into the memory completely and so on till the last row.
    • Column-Major Order: In column-major ordering, all the columns of the 2D array are stored into the memory contiguously. first, the 1st column of the array is stored into the memory completely, then the 2nd row of the array is stored into the memory completely and so on till the last column of the array.

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    How Does Insertion Sort Differ From Selection Sort

    Both insertion and selection approaches maintain two sub-lists, sorted and unsorted. Each takes one element from the unsorted sub-list and places it into the sorted sub-list. The distinction between the two sorting processes lies in the treatment of the current element.

    Insertion sort takes the current element and places it in the sorted sublist at the appropriate location. Selection sort searches for the minimum value in the unsorted sub-list and replaces the same with the present element.

    What Can I Do To Find Out Whether This Data Science Certification Program Is Good For Me

    It’s always beneficial to learn new talents and broaden your knowledge. This Data Science certification program was created in collaboration with Purdue University and is an excellent combination of a world-renowned curriculum and industry-aligned training, making this program in data science a superb choice.

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    What Are The Basic Operations Performed On Various Data Structures

    The basic operations performed on data structures are as follows:

    • Insertion – Adds a new data element in the data structure.
    • Deletion – Removes a data element in a data structure.
    • Searching – Involves searching for a specified data element in a data structure.
    • Traversal – Processing all data elements present in it.
    • Merging – Combines two similar data structures to form a new data structure of the same type.
    • Sorting – Arranging data elements of a data structure in a specified order.

    Explain The Difference Between An Array And A Stack

    Dream MNC DS and Algorithm Interview Questions Part 12

    Your answer will demonstrate the ease with which you can discuss common data structure terms. If applicable, add an example of how the differences between an array and a stack might apply to the interviewing company.

    Example:Stacks and arrays store data in two different ways. First, theres the type of data. Stacks can store different types of data while arrays store data of the same type. Second, theres the size of the structure. Stacks change in size as elements are removed or added. Arrays do not change in size.

    Related:

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    List A Few Queue Data Structure Applications

    As the name suggests, the queue is used whenever you need to manage a group of objects in the order FIFO. A few of the queue data structure applications are listed below:

    • Serving requests on a single shared resource, like CPU task scheduling, printer, etc.
    • Handling interruptions in real-time systems.
    • Buffers in apps like CD player and MP3 media players
    • In maintaining a playlist in media players, like adding or removing songs.

    What Is The Difference Between The Breadth First Search And Depth First Search

    Breadth First Search
    DFS necessitates less memory.
    Nodes that have been traversed multiple times are removed from the queue. When there are no more nodes to visit, the visited nodes are added to the stack and then removed.
    Backtracking is not an option in BFS. The DFS algorithm is a recursive algorithm that employs the concept of backtracking.
    It is based on the FIFO principle . It is based on the LIFO principle .

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