Q2 What Are The Advantages That Containerization Provides Over Virtualization
Below are the advantages of containerization over virtualization:
- Containers provide real-time provisioning and scalability but VMs provide slow provisioning
- Containers are lightweight when compared to VMs
- VMs have limited performance when compared to containers
- Containers have better resource utilization compared to VMs
Q1 What Is Continuous Testing
I will advise you to follow the below mentioned explanation:Continuous Testing is the process of executing automated tests as part of the software delivery pipeline to obtain immediate feedback on the business risks associated with in the latest build. In this way, each build is tested continuously, allowing Development teams to get fast feedback so that they can prevent those problems from progressing to the next stage of Software delivery life-cycle. This dramatically speeds up a developers workflow as theres no need to manually rebuild the project and re-run all tests after making changes.
Top Devops Interview Questions
These are the top questions you might face in a DevOps job interview:
General DevOps Interview Questions
This category will include questions that are not related to any particular DevOps stage. Questions here are meant to test your understanding about DevOps rather than focusing on a particular tool or a stage.
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Explain The Difference Between A Centralized And Distributed Version Control System
Centralized Version Control System
- All file versions are stored on a central server
- No developer has a copy of all files on a local system
- If the central server crashes, all data from the project will be lost
Distributed Control System
- Every developer has a copy of all versions of the code on their systems
- Enables team members to work offline and does not rely on a single location for backups
- There is no threat, even if the server crashes
Q12what Is Facter In Puppet
You are expected to answer what exactly Facter does in Puppet so according to me, you should say, Facter gathers basic information about Puppet Agent such as hardware details, network settings, OS type and version, IP addresses, MAC addresses, SSH keys, and more. These facts are then made available in Puppet Masters Manifests as variables.
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How To Create A Backup And Copy Files In Jenkins
Ans: The following steps will help you understand how to create a backup and copy files in Jenkins:
- Periodically backup your JENKINS_HOME directory, which contains job configurations, slave node configurations, and all your build history.
- To create a backup of your Jenkins setup, just copy this directory. You can also copy a job directory to clone or replicate a job or rename the directory.
Whats The Importance Of Configuration Management In Devops
CM helps in automating tedious tasks, thereby enhancing the performance and agility of the entire organization.
Here are a few additional basic-level DevOps interview questions for practice:
If youâre not a fresher, you must also go through a few intermediate-level DevOps interview questions to prepare yourself for the interview. Weâve covered these in the next section.
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How Do You Handle The Merge Conflicts In Git
In order to resolve the merge conflicts in Git, we need to follow three steps:
- Understand what happened: It could be because of the same line edit on the same file it could be because of deleting some files, or also it could be because of files with the same file names. You can check everything by using git status.
- : When we open the files using the merge tool, Git marks the conflicted area like this < < < < < HEAD and > > > > > .
- Perform commit again and then merge the current branch with the master branch.
Go through this GIT Cheat Sheet and know more about GIT.
What Is A Docker Container And How Do You Create It
- A Docker container is an open-source software development platform that stores the code and all of its dependencies and runs the application quickly and reliably from one computing environment to the other.
- Docker containers are not specified to any particular infrastructure they can run on any infrastructure, on any computer, and in any cloud.
- A Docker container image is a standalone, lightweight, and executable package of software that has everything to run the application such as code, system tools, runtime, system libraries, and settings.
Docker Containers can be created with the Docker image using the following command:
docker run -t -i < image name> < command name>
This will create and start the container.
If you want to check the list of all running containers with status on the host, use the following command:
docker ps -a
If you have any additional DevOps questions and are unable to find the answers, please do mention them in the comment section below. Well get back to you at the earliest.
Here are the other DevOps courses offered by Mindmajix
|List of DevOps Courses|
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Q17 Do I Lose My Data When The Docker Container Exits
DevOps Pipeline can be defined as a set of tools and processes in which both the development team and operations team work together. In DevOps automation, CI/CD plays an important role. Now if we look into the flow of DevOps, First when we complete continuous integration. Then the next step towards continuous delivery is triggered. After the continuous delivery, the next step of continuous deployment will be triggered. The connection of all these functions can be defined as a pipeline.
Q19 What Are Playbooks In Ansible
Playbooks are Ansibles configuration, deployment, and orchestration language. They can describe a policy you want your remote systems to enforce, or a set of steps in a general IT process. Playbooks are designed to be human-readable and are developed in a basic text language.At a basic level, playbooks can be used to manage configurations of and deployments to remote machines.
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About This Free Certificate Course
DevOps can be understood as a collection of tools, practices and philosophies which is used in an organization to increase its efficiency and effectiveness. It’s used to enhance the ability of an organization to deliver services and applications at a faster pace. According to a research, in 2015, 66% of the organizations were adopting DevOps while this number increased significantly in 2016 when 74% of the organizations shifted to DevOps and are still increasing. In this course, we will take you through some of the important and frequently asked DevOps interview questions that will help you in the near future.These questions will include the core as well as advanced topics in DevOps. Also, we will be covering general software interview questions along with a detailed explanation of the problem and how we can solve them quickly with the help of the DevOps methodology.
How To Get A List Of Ansible Predefined Variables
Ans: Ansible stores facts about machines under management by default and these can be accessed in playbooks and templates. To get a list of all the facts that are available about a machine, run a setup module as an ad-hoc action:
Ansible -m setup hostname
This will present all the facts that are available under that particular host.
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Q9 What Is The Blue/green Deployment Pattern
This is a continuous deployment strategy that is generally used to decrease downtime. This is used for transferring the traffic from one instance to another.
For Example, let us take a situation where we want to include a new version of code. Now we have to replace the old version with a new version of code. The old version is considered to be in a blue environment and the new version is considered as a green environment. we had made some changes to the existing old version which transformed into a new version with minimum changes. Now to run the new version of the instance we need to transfer the traffic from the old instance to the new instance. That means we need to transfer the traffic from the blue environment to the green environment. The new version will be running on the green instance. Gradually the traffic is transferred to the green instance. The blue instance will be kept on idle and used for the rollback.
In Blue-Green deployment, the application is not deployed in the same environment. Instead, a new server or environment is created where the new version of the application is deployed.
Once the new version of the application is deployed in a separate environment, the traffic to the old version of the application is redirected to the new version of the application.
What Is Selenium Ide
Selenium integrated development environment is an all-in-one Selenium script development environment. It may be used to debug tests, alter and record and is also available as a Firefox extension. Selenium IDE comes with the whole Selenium Core that allows us to rapidly and easily replay and record tests in the exact environment where they will be conducted.
Selenium IDE is the best environment for building Selenium tests, regardless of the style of testing we prefer, thanks to the ability to move instructions around rapidly and the autocomplete support.
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How Does Ansible Work
Ansible is an open-source automation tool, which is categorized into two types of servers:
- Controlling machines
Ansible will be installed on the controlling machine, and using that machine nodes are managed with the help of SSH. Nodes locations are specified by inventories in that controlling machine.
Since Ansible is an agentless tool, it doesnt require any mandatory installations on remote nodes. So, there is no need of background programs to be executed while it is managing any nodes.
Ansible can handle a lot of nodes from a single system over an SSH connection with the help of Ansible Playbooks. Playbooks are capable of performing multiple tasks, and they are in the YAML file format.
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Can You Explain The Shift Left To Reduce Failure Concept In Devops
Shift left is a DevOps idea for improving security, performance, and other factors. Let us take an example: if we look at all of the processes in DevOps, we can state that security is tested prior to the deployment step. We can add security in the development phase, which is on the left, by employing the left shift method. We can integrate with all phases, including before development and during testing, not just development. This most likely raises the security level by detecting faults at an early stage.
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Question No : What Are The Top Devops Tools And Which Ones Have You Worked With Before
How to answer: This open-ended question is designed to showcase your knowledge and experience with a variety of available DevOps tools. Share any tools you have specific experience with and how you have used them to develop good quality software. If you have generalised knowledge of many tools, you can easily refer to how to use them. If you have limited experience with DevOps tools, you can share that you specialise in those tools and how you have used them.
Q3 How Does Nagios Works
I will advise you to follow the below explanation for this answer: Nagios runs on a server, usually as a daemon or service. Nagios periodically runs plugins residing on the same server, they contact hosts or servers on your network or on the internet. One can view the status information using the web interface. You can also receive email or SMS notifications if something happens.The Nagios daemon behaves like a scheduler that runs certain scripts at certain moments. It stores the results of those scripts and will run other scripts if these results change.
Now expect a few questions on Nagios components like Plugins, NRPE etc..
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What Do You Mean By Automation Testing
Ans: Automation Testing or Test Automation is a software testing technique. It is used to automate the testing tasks and repetitive tasks that are difficult to perform manually. It involves the use of separate testing tools which lets you create test scripts to test and compare the actual and expected outcomes.
How Does Configuration Management Differ From Provisioning Infrastructure
Ans: Configuration management and provisioning infrastructure, both are important for the DevOps toolchain. While configuration management is best when it comes to employing desired configurations for target machines or groups of machines, provisioning helps you to create, modify, delete, and track infrastructure using APIs or code.
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What Is The Role Of Configuration Management In Devops
- Enables management of and changes to multiple systems.
- Standardizes resource configurations, which in turn, manage IT infrastructure.
- It helps with the administration and management of multiple servers and maintains the integrity of the entire infrastructure.
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Q3 What Is The Difference Between An Asset And A Configuration Item
According to me, you should first explain Asset. It has a financial value along with a depreciation rate attached to it. IT assets are just a sub-set of it. Anything and everything that has a cost and the organization uses it for its asset value calculation and related benefits in tax calculation falls under Asset Management, and such item is called an asset.Configuration Item on the other hand may or may not have financial values assigned to it. It will not have any depreciation linked to it. Thus, its life would not be dependent on its financial value but will depend on the time till that item becomes obsolete for the organization.
Now you can give an example that can showcase the similarity and differences between both:1) Similarity:Server It is both an asset as well as a CI.2) Difference:Building It is an asset but not a CI.Document It is a CI but not an asset
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Which Are The Best Configuration Management Tools
Ans: The best Configuration Management tools are mentioned below:
- Chef: Automation platform that transforms infrastructure into code.
- Ansible: Automates entire IT infrastructure.
- Puppet: Open-source configuration management tool.
- Saltstack: It is based on the Python programming language and allows scalable and efficient configuration.
- CFEngine: Open-source configuration management tool, which automates large-scale and complex IT infrastructure.
You can also mention any other tools if you have real-time experience in your previous job and explain how it improves the software development process.
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How To Move Or Copy Jenkins From One Server To Another
Ans: There are multiple ways to copy or move Jenkins from one server to another:
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Explain The Architecture Of Docker
- Docker uses a client-server architecture.
- Docker Client is a service that runs a command. The command is translated using the REST API and is sent to the Docker Daemon .
- Docker Daemon accepts the request and interacts with the operating system to build Docker images and run Docker containers.
- A Docker image is a template of instructions, which is used to create containers.
- Docker container is an executable package of an application and its dependencies together.
- Docker registry is a service to host and distribute Docker images among users.
Q12 How Do You Find A List Of Files That Has Changed In A Particular Commit
For this answer instead of just telling the command, explain what exactly this command will do so you can say that, To get a list files that has changed in a particular commit use commandgit diff-tree -r Given the commit hash, this will list all the files that were changed or added in that commit. The -r flag makes the command list individual files, rather than collapsing them into root directory names only.You can also include the below mention point although it is totally optional but will help in impressing the interviewer.The output will also include some extra information, which can be easily suppressed by including two flags:git diff-tree no-commit-id name-only -r Here no-commit-id will suppress the commit hashes from appearing in the output, and name-only will only print the file names, instead of their paths.
Are There Any Technical Challenges With Selenium
- It supports only web-based applications.
- It does not support the Bitmap comparison.
- No vendor support is available for Selenium compared to commercial tools like HP UFT.
- As there is no object repository concept, maintainability of objects becomes very complex.
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