Sunday, April 21, 2024

Cyber Security Engineer Interview Questions

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What Is Forward Secrecy And How Does It Work

Cyber Security Engineer Interview – 30 Questions/Answers Scenarios
  • Forward secrecy is a feature of specific key agreement protocols which gives assurance that even if the private key of the server is compromised the session keys will not be compromised. It is also known as perfect forward secrecy.
  • The Algorithm that helps in achieving this is called “DiffieHellman key exchange”.

Differentiate Between Black Box Testing And White Box Testing

Black Box Testing White Box Testing
It’s a type of software testing in which the program’s or software’s internal structure is concealed. It is a method of software testing in which the tester is familiar with the software’s internal structure or code.
It is not necessary to have any prior experience with implementation. It is not necessary to have prior experience with implementation.
On the basis of the requirement specifications paper, this testing can begin. This form of software testing begins once the detailed design document has been completed.
It takes the least amount of time. It takes the most amount of time.
It is the software’s behavior testing. It is the software’s logic testing.
It is relevant to higher levels of software testing. It is relevant to lower levels of software testing.

What Is The Difference Between Arp Spoofing And Arp Poisoning

ARP poisoning is an attack that is accomplished using the technique of ARP spoofing.

ARP spoofing is a technique that allows an attacker to craft a fake ARP packet that looks like it came from a different source, or has a fake MAC address in it.

An attacker uses the process of ARP spoofing to poison a victims ARP table, so that it contains incorrect or altered IP-to-MAC address mappings for various attacks, such as a man-in-the-middle attack.

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Explain Arp And Its Functionality

The ARP also known as Address Resolution Protocol, is a mechanism that maps an Internet Protocol address to a physical machine address to a local network. When an incoming packet from a specific local area network’s host machine arrives at a gateway, it tells the ARP program to hunt for a physical host or MAC address that matches the IP address. The ARP software looks for the address in the ARP cache and returns it if it is found, so the packet can be changed to the proper length and format before being sent to the machine. Whether no record for the IP address is found, ARP sends a request packet to all the machines on the LAN in a specific format to see if any of them are aware that they have that IP address.

Hids Vs Nids: Are They The Same

Cyber Security Engineer Interview Questions: 4 Ways to Prepare ...

HIDS are host-based intrusion detection systems while NIDS are network-based intrusion detection systems. Because HIDS can detect malicious data packets originating from within the enterprise network, these systems are useful for catching inside threats. HIDS reviews historical data to identify unconventional cyberattacksunusual host-based actions changes to system files will trigger an alert. NIDS, however, detect threats in real-time through live data tracking of network traffic, meaning NIDS can catch hackers before a complete system breach occurs.

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What Are The Different Scheduling Algorithms

Listed below are the different scheduling algorithms:

  • First come, first serve: The process which requests the CPU first gets the CPU allocation first.
  • Shortest job first: Here, the process with the shortest execution time should be selected for execution next.
  • Priority scheduling: Here, the scheduler selects the tasks to work as per the priority.
  • Multiple level queues: Processes are assigned to a queue based on a specific property like the process priority, size of the memory, etc.
  • Shortest remaining time: Here, the process will be allocated to the task, which is closest to its completion.
  • Round Robin: Each process that comes, in turn, gets an equal share of time.
  • Security Risk And Management

    • Is there an acceptable level of risk?

    • How do you measure risk? Can you give an example of a specific metric that measures information security risk?

    • Can you give me an example of risk trade-offs ?

    • What is incident management?

    • What is business continuity management? How does it relate to security?

    • What is the primary reason most companies havent fixed their vulnerabilities?

    • Whats the goal of information security within an organization?

    • Whats the difference between a threat, vulnerability, and a risk?

    • If you were to start a job as head engineer or CSO at a Fortune 500 company due to the previous guy being fired for incompetence, what would your priorities be?

    • As a corporate information security professional, whats more important to focus on: threats or vulnerabilities?

    • If Im on my laptop, here inside my company, and I have just plugged in my network cable, How many packets must leave my NIC in order to complete a traceroute to twittercom?

    • How would you build the ultimate botnet?

    • What are the primary design flaws in HTTP, and how would you improve it?

    • If you could re-design TCP, what would you fix?

    • What is the one feature you would add to DNS to improve it the most?

    • What is likely to be the primary protocol used for the Internet of Things in 10 years?

    • If you had to get rid of a layer of the OSI model, which would it be?

    • What is residual risk?

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    What Tools And Techniques Should A Security Engineer Be Familiar With

    Like many developed areas of technology, there are a plethora of tools available to security engineers. These include frameworks, libraries, and other tools used to track, defend, and determine the probable causes of security breaches.

    In addition to tools, security engineers need to understand more domain specific issues. These include social engineering, phishing, buffer overflows, XSS, zero-days, and Metasploit. They should have a good knowledge of administrative tools, firewalls, antivirus solutions, and threat modeling. Finally, an understanding of Intrusion Detection Systems/Intrusion Prevention Systems or Security Information and Event Management systems is required on a daily basis.

    Differentiate Between Hids And Nids

    CYBER SECURITY Interview Questions And Answers! (How to PASS your Cyber Security Job interview!)

    HIDs look at certain host-based actions including what apps are run, what files are accessed, and what information is stored in the kernel logs. NIDs examine the flow of data between computers, often known as network traffic. They basically “sniff” the network for unusual activity. As a result, NIDs can identify a hacker before he can make an unlawful entry, whereas HIDs won’t notice anything is wrong until the hacker has already gotten into the system.

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    What Is Data Leakage And How Would You Prevent It

    This question tries to assess your understanding of standard office practices concerning data protection. Explain the typical channels of data leakage and some simple steps that can prevent it.

    Example:”Data leakage refers to the unauthorised release of an organisation’s data through sources such as compromised emails, data recovery from scrapped computers or uploading of photographs on social media. A company can prevent data leakage by having a data usage policy to control and restrict the usage of data. The data usage policy can put explicit restrictions on using personal emails in the office and transmitting data to third parties without permission, among others.”

    How To Save Yourself From Brute Force Attack

    It is better to have a robust password policy. Web applications and web servers should enforce strong passwords. A stand user account must contain minimum eight characters which includes characters, numbers, upper case and lowercase alphabets, special characters. Servers should make it compulsory to update the passwords on regular basis.

    Following are the methods to avoid Brute Force attack-

    • Only limited failed login attempts
    • Make the root user unreachable by altering the sshd_config file.
    • Default port is not safe for use. Use sshd_ configuration file instead.
    • Use Captcha.
    • Keep yourself updated with the server logs.

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    Can You Reset A Password

    BIOS is a firmware located on a memory chip, often in a computers motherboard or system board. A typical BIOS security feature is a user password that must be entered to boot up a device. If you wish to reset a password-protected BIOS configuration, youll need to turn off your device, locate a password reset jumper on the system board, remove the jumper plug from the password jumper-pins, and turn on the device without the jumper plug to clear the password. This will reset the BIOS to default factory settings.

    What Do You Mean By Port Scanning

    Cyber Security Interview Questions and Answers Part

    Ports are vital assets that are vulnerable to security breaches. Attackers use port scanning to locate open ports that are sending or receiving data on a network. This technique is also used to assess a hosts vulnerabilities by sending packets to various ports and analyzing their responses. Nevertheless, port scanning is not an inherently malicious activitycybersecurity specialists use port scanning to evaluate network security.

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    Cyber Security Engineer Interview Questions: 4 Ways To Prepare

    Cyber security engineer interview questions can take many forms, but all serve a singular purpose: Allowing a potential employer to evaluate how well you might protect a companys employees and infrastructure from cyberattacks.

    Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, which unleashed virus-themed phishing and other attacks on corporate tech stacks, cyberattacks were increasing worldwide at a pretty rapid clip. Companies have been anxious to add positions to their security teams, meaning that technologists with the right combination of cyber security training and skills have a good chance of landing a job.

    Indeed, for the past few years, finding enough qualified engineers to fill open cyber security jobs has proven challenging. In November 2019, for example, the International Information System Security Certification Consortium ²) that found there are about 2.8 million security professionals currently working worldwidewith another 4 million needed to close the security gap facing companies.

    A recent article for the Council on Foreign Relations also found that, at a time of heightened concern over public health, cyber security remains a critical concern for organizations of all sizes. Cybercrime, nation-state attacks and issues of citizens privacy and government surveillance are all key concerns that can impact companies health.

    What Is A Firewall

    It is software or hardware that blocks incoming or outgoing traffic from the internet to your computer. They are responsible for securing a network.

    The figure above shows how good traffic is allowed to enter the user’s network. Similarly, the figure below shows how the firewall blocks the bad traffic, thereby protecting the user’s network.

    A few common types of firewalls are:

  • Packet-filtering Firewalls: These are the most common type of firewalls that analyze packets and let them pass through only if they match an established security rule-set.
  • Proxy Firewalls: They filter network traffic at the application level.
  • Stateful Multilayer Inspection Firewalls: These filter packets at the network, transport, and application layers. Here, the packets are compared to the known trusted packets.
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    Why Should I Learn Cyber Security From Intellipaat

    Although there are many cybersecurity training courses out there, our program in collaboration with E& ICT, IIT Guwahati will make you proficient in various techniques and concepts related to Cyber Security.

    In this course, you will work on various projects based on the specific modules of Cyber Security. This will help you gain experience in solving Cyber Security issues that occur in the industry in the real world. Also, you will get 24-hour assistance to get rid of all your course-related queries.

    After completing the whole Cyber Security program, our placement team will assist you in searching for a high-income Cyber Security jobs through mock interview sessions, resume preparation, and more. Finally, you will receive an industry-recognized Cyber Security certificate from us.

    Prepare For Coding Interviews

    Cyber Security Interview Questions And Answers | Cyber Security Interview Preparation | Simplilearn

    Security engineer interviews are often asked coding interviews related to security standards. These tend to follow the more common algorithm and data structures interview questions asked in software engineering interviews.

    To answer these questions, review the basics of software engineering, including but not limited to sorting algorithms, binary search, graphs and trees, dynamic programming, recursion, arrays, linked lists, stacks, queues, hash tables, heaps, graph search, and more.

    Some common or recently asked software engineering interview questions to review and practice:

    • Given an array of intervals, merge the overlapping intervals and return an array of the non-overlapping intervals that cover all intervals in the input. Watch answer.
    • Design an algorithm to merge k sorted linked lists. Watch answer.
    • Given an nxn grid of 1 and 0s, return the number of islands in the input.Watch answer.
    • Write an LRU Cache. View answer.
    • Write a function fib that returns the nth Fibonacci number. Practice answer.
    • You have the value of a stock for the next n days. Given that you can only buy or sell at most 1 share each day, maximize your profit after n days.
    • If there are two strings, which both contain a number larger than 32bit, how do you add them and return the result as a string?
    • Given a list of integers, return a 1 if the number is a power of 2 and a 0 if the number isn’t a power of 2.

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    Differentiate Ssl From Tls

    SSL is designed to confirm the sender’s identity, but it doesn’t look for anything else. SSL can assist you in tracking the person with whom you are conversing, but it can also be deceived at times.

    TLS, like SSL, is an identification tool, but it has more security features. It adds another layer of security to the data, which is why SSL and TLS are frequently used together for enhanced security.

    What Are The Test Levels In Software Testing

    The test levels in software testing are:

  • Module testing: It checks subprograms, procedures, routines, and subroutines in a program.
  • Integration testing: Here, the combined parts of an application of software are tested to check if they function correctly or not.
  • System testing: System testing tests the entire system or software or any application.
  • Acceptance testing: The quality assurance team does this testing to check if the clients’ requirements are met or not.
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    What Is A Distributed Denial Of Service Attack

    A Denial of Service attacks’ objective is to flood networks and systems with traffic to exhaust their resources and bandwidth. By doing so, a website is unable to cater to legitimate service requests. When hackers use multiple systems to launch this attack, it is known as a Distributed Denial of Service attack.

    An Employees Bank Account Faces An Error During A Direct Deposit Two Different Offices Need To Work On It To Straighten This Out Office #1 Contacts Office #2 By Email To Send The Valid Account Information For The Deposit The Employee Now Gives The Bank Confirmations That The Error No Longer Exists What Is Wrong Here

    A Quick Guide to Hiring a Cybersecurity Engineer

    Any sensitive information cannot be shared via email as it can lead to identity theft. This is because emails are mostly not private and secure. Sharing or sending personal information along the network is not recommended as the route can be easily tracked.

    In such scenarios, the involved parties should call each other and work with ITS as a secure way of sending the information.

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    Cyber Security Interview Tips How To Pass A Cyber Security Job Interview

    There are numerous jobs available within Cyber Security, including:

    • Cyber Security Analyst.
    • Cryptanalyst.
    • Security Consultant.

    Regardless of the job you are being interviewed for, make sure you tread the following tips because they will help you to successfully pass your interview at the first attempt!


    The hiring manager is looking to see you have the relevant skills, qualities and experience to protect their business and their assets. Therefore, it is vital you can provide evidence of where you have performed cyber security tasks to a high standard in previous roles. Think of difficult situations you have been in where you responded professionally and efficiently to incidents and be prepared for probing questions that delve deep into your actions and your thought processes.


    Take the time to consider how you would create and set up a Cyber Security Incident Handling Procedure for their business. Dont use a generic IHP instead, use one that is tailored to their business and the sector they operate in. This will show the hiring manager you have taken the time to prepare for the role you will be operating in.



    Describe A Security Issue Or Crisis That You Resolved

    When asked a situational or behavioral question like this, your best bet is to use the STAR method to outline your strategy and methods in a thorough way. Its also important to emphasize how you kept a cool head and used the resources at your disposal, while understanding the implications of the crisis, and taking steps to prevent it from happening again.

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    Why Did You Choose Cybersecurity To Build Your Career

    Through this question, the interviewer aims to gauge your priorities. Naturally, making money should not be your stated reason for choosing this career path. If that is indeed your reason, it needs to be phrased in a way that allows the interviewer to understand that financial gain is not the only motivator behind your interest in the role.

    Talk about how cybersecurity is a grave issue in the post-pandemic corporate landscape and that you think you can make a positive difference by choosing this field. You can mention the shortage of strong candidates in the domain and how your skills can help protect the organization as well as give you hands-on experience and career growth.

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